Download
catalyst february 8 3 2 2 010 10 3 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Catalyst – February 8*3-2, 2.010* 10 3 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Catalyst – February 8*3-2, 2.010* 10 3

Catalyst – February 8*3-2, 2.010* 10 3

109 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Catalyst – February 8*3-2, 2.010* 10 3

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Catalyst – February 8*3-2, 2.010* 103 Monday Mystery Element • Discovered by boiling urine • There are 2 forms: white and red • The white forms combusts in air Don’t forget to make your Weekly Goal!

  2. Catalyst – February 8*3-2, 2.010* 103 Monday Mystery Element • Discovered by boiling urine • There are 2 forms: white and red • The white form combusts in air PHOSPHORUS!

  3. Today’s Agenda • Catalyst • More secrets of the PT: Valence Electrons, Atomic Size, and Electronegativity • Group Work Time • Exit Question

  4. Today’s Objectives • SWBAT determine periodic trends for valence electrons, atomic size, and electronegativity.

  5. Why do scientists use graphs? • To organize, compare, and display experimental data • To make calculations and predictions

  6. How to Graph • Label axes (x = ______, y = _______) • Title graph (y-axis vs. x-axis) • Determine scales • Plot each point • Draw trend line (line of best fit)

  7. Valence Electrons Don’t forget! • Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level.

  8. Example • Electron configuration for silicon (Si): • What is the highest energy level? • So how many valence electrons? 1s22s22p63s23p2 2 + 2 = 4!

  9. Group Challenge • Each group will write electron configurations for the elements in ONE family. Then, count the number of valence electrons for each configuration. • Group 1: Alkali Metals • Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals • Group 3: Boron’s Group • Group 4: Carbon’s Group • Group 5: Nitrogen’s Group • Group 6: Halogens • Group 7: Noble Gases • Group 8: Noble Gases

  10. Group Challenge • Each group will write electron configurations for the elements in ONE family. Then, count the number of valence electrons in each configuration. • Group 1: Alkali Metals • Group 2: Boron’s Group • Group 3: Carbon’s Group • Group 4: Nitrogen’s Group • Group 5: Halogens • Group 6: Noble Gases

  11. Valence Electrons

  12. What is Atomic Size? • Atomic size is… • How big an atom is • Also known as atomic radius

  13. Graphing Atomic Size (Radii) • Draw 2 line graphs • X-axis: Element • Y-axis: Atomic Radius (picometers)

  14. Elements and their Atomic Radii (1) 1 picometer = 1 x 10-12 m

  15. Atomic Size – Graph 1 Na K Rb Cs H Li

  16. Atomic Size – Graph 2 Li C N F Be B O Ne

  17. What trend(s) do you notice?

  18. Atomic size DECREASES as you go across the Periodic Table Atomic size INCREAESES as you go down the Periodic Table

  19. Atomic Size Key Point #1: Atomic size increases as you go down the periodic table and decreases as you go left to right across the periodic table.

  20. Practice Problems • Rank the following elements in order of increasing atomic size based on location on the periodic table (smallest to biggest) • Fr, Sc, P, Pd P, Pd, Sc, Fr F, As, Tl, S Fluorine, Sulfur, Arsenic, Thallium

  21. Practice Time! • T or F? Atomic size decreases as you move right across the periodic table. • T or F? As you move down the Periodic Table, atoms get smaller. • Rank the following sets of elements in order of increasing atomic size (small  big). Set A: Bh, Mn, Re, Tc Set B: Sb, I, Ag, Ru Set C: Y, Ti, Sg, Ta • Rank the following sets of elements in order of decreasing atomic size (big  small). Set A: Cl, At, I, F, Br Set B: Te, Xe, Sn, In Set C:Rb, K, Sr, Ca

  22. What is electronegativity? • Electronegativity is… • The ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a chemical bond • How much an atom wants electrons

  23. Graphing Electronegativity • Draw 2 line graphs • X-axis: Element • Y-axis: Electronegativity (Paulings)

  24. Elements and their Electronegativity (1)

  25. Electronegativity Graph 1

  26. Electronegativity Graph 2

  27. What trend(s) do you notice?

  28. Electronegativity Key Point #2: Electronegativity decreases as you go down the periodic table and increases as you go left to right across the periodic table.

  29. Electronegativity Trends

  30. Practice Problems • Rank the following elements in order of increasing electronegativity based on location on the periodic table (smallest to biggest) • Mg, Sr, Be, Ra Radon, Strontium, Magnesium, Beryllium Cl, Si, Al, S, P Aluminum, Silicon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine

  31. Practice Time! • T or F? Electronegativity decreases as you move left across the periodic table. • T or F? As you move down the Periodic Table, atoms get more electronegative. • Rank the following sets of elements in order of increasing electronegativity (small  big). Set A: Bh, Mn, Re, Tc Set B: Sb, I, Ag, Ru Set C: Y, Ti, Sg, Ta • Rank the following sets of elements in order of decreasing electronegativity (big  small). Set A: Cl, At, I, F, Br Set B: Te, Xe, Sn, In Set C:Rb, K, Sr, Ca

  32. How does atomic size related to electronegativity? Key Point #3: Atomic size is indirectly related to electronegativity. ATOMIC SIZE As electronegativity increases, atomic size decreases! ELECTRONEGATIVITY

  33. Why is this relationship true? • Atoms with HIGH ELECTRONEGATIVITIES hold their electrons very close! • Sooooo, the atomic size decreases High or low electronegativity? Large or small atomic size?

  34. Exit Question • Which element has atoms with the smallest size: Cl, Se, P, or F? • Which element has the largest electronegativity: Ag, Cu, Hg, or Zn? • As electronegativity increases, atomic size….?