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Managing Project Processes

Managing Project Processes

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Managing Project Processes

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  1. Managing ProjectProcesses

  2. Characteristics of a Project • A unique, one-time effort • Requires completion of a large number of interrelated activities • Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited • Typically has its own management structure

  3. Critical Path Method (CPM) • Designed to provide intense micro-control • System is dynamic; it continues to provide periodic reports as project progresses

  4. Manager’s View of CPM • List of project activities • Precedence relationship among activities • Estimate of each activity’s duration CPM processing procedures • Estimated duration of project • Identification of critical activities • Amount of slack for each activity

  5. d 6 3 b f h a 5 1 2 8 c g i 4 e 7 CPM Terminology • Activity • A task or certain amount of work required in the project • Requires time to complete • Represented by an arc (AOA) or a node (AON) • Dummy activity (AOA only) • Indicates only precedence relationships • Does not require any time of effort

  6. d 6 3 b f h a 5 1 2 8 c g i 4 e 7 CPM Terminology • Network • Shows sequential relationships among activities using nodes and arrows

  7. CPM Terminology • Path • Connected sequence of activities leading from starting event to ending event • Critical path • Longest path (time); determines project duration • Critical activities • All of the activities that make up critical path

  8. CPM Terminology • Earliest start (ES) • Earliest that an activity can begin; assumes all preceding activities have been completed • Earliest finish (EF) • ES + activity time • Latest finish (LF) • Latest that an activity can finish and not change project completion time • Latest start (LS) • LF - activity time

  9. Steps in CPM Analysis • Draw the CPM network • A graphic view of relationships among required activities • Path analysis • Determine length of each path (time required to complete each path) • Longest path is the critical path

  10. Steps in CPM Analysis • Network analysis • Working from left to right, find the EF and ES for each activity • Working from right to left, find LF and LS for each activity • Compute activity’s slack • Total Slack = LS - ES = LF - EF • This slack is shared with other activities • Free slack • Time an activity may be delayed without impacting the ES of successor activities

  11. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. B Select site and do site survey. C Select equipment. D Prepare final construction plans and layout. E Bring utilities to the site. F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. H Construct the hospital. I Develop an information system. J Install the equipment. K Train nurses and support staff. St. Adolf’s Hospital

  12. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop an information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J St. Adolf’s Hospital

  13. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  14. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 Start St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  15. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 Start B 9 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  16. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 C 10 Start B 9 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  17. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 C 10 Start B 9 D 10 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  18. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 C 10 Start B 9 D 10 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  19. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 C 10 Start B 9 D 10 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  20. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 C 10 G 35 Start B 9 D 10 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  21. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 C 10 G 35 Start B 9 D 10 H 40 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  22. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) I 15 A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 C 10 G 35 Start B 9 D 10 H 40 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  23. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) I 15 A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 C 10 G 35 Start B 9 D 10 H 40 J 4 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  24. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) I 15 A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 K 6 C 10 G 35 Start B 9 D 10 H 40 J 4 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  25. Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) I 15 A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 K 6 C 10 G 35 Start Finish B 9 D 10 H 40 J 4 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  26. Path Expected Time (wks) A-F-K 28 A-I-K 33 A-C-G-J-K 67 B-D-H-J-K 69 B-E-J-K 43 Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) I 15 A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 K 6 C 10 G 35 Start Finish B 9 D 10 H 40 J 4 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  27. Path Expected Time (wks) A-F-K 28 A-I-K 33 A-C-G-J-K 67 B-D-H-J-K 69 B-E-J-K 43 Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) I 15 A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 K 6 C 10 G 35 Start Finish B 9 D 10 H 40 J 4 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  28. Path Expected Time (wks) A-F-K 28 A-I-K 33 A-C-G-J-K 67 B-D-H-J-K 69 B-E-J-K 43 Immediate Activity Description Predecessor(s) I 15 A Select administrative and medical staff. — B Select site and do site survey. — C Select equipment. A D Prepare final construction plans and layout. B E Bring utilities to the site. B F Interview applicants and fill positions in nursing, support staff, maintenance, and security. A G Purchase and take delivery of equipment. C H Construct the hospital. D I Develop and information system. A J Install the equipment. E,G,H K Train nurses and support staff. F,I,J A 12 F 10 K 6 C 10 G 35 Start Finish B 9 D 10 H 40 J 4 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Completion Time

  29. I 15 F 10 A 12 K 6 C 10 G 35 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times

  30. I 15 Earliest start time F 10 A 12 K 6 0 C 10 G 35 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times

  31. I 15 Earliest finish time Earliest start time F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 C 10 G 35 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times

  32. I 15 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 C 10 G 35 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 0 9 E 24 St. Adolf’s Hospital Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times

  33. I 15 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 C 10 G 35 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 0 9 E 24 9 33 St. Adolf’s Hospital Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times

  34. I 15 12 27 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 12 22 C 10 G 35 12 22 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 0 9 E 24 9 33 St. Adolf’s Hospital Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times

  35. I 15 12 27 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 12 22 C 10 G 35 12 22 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 0 9 E 24 9 33 St. Adolf’s Hospital Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times

  36. I 15 12 27 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 12 22 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 0 9 E 24 9 33 St. Adolf’s Hospital Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times

  37. I 15 12 27 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 12 22 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 E 24 9 33 St. Adolf’s Hospital Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times

  38. I 15 12 27 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 E 24 9 33 St. Adolf’s Hospital Latest Start and Latest Finish Times

  39. I 15 12 27 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 Latest finish time 63 69 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 E 24 9 33 St. Adolf’s Hospital Latest Start and Latest Finish Times

  40. I 15 12 27 F 10 A 12 K 6 Latest start time 0 12 63 69 12 22 Latest finish time 63 69 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 E 24 9 33 St. Adolf’s Hospital Latest Start and Latest Finish Times

  41. I 15 12 27 48 63 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 63 69 53 63 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 59 63 E 24 9 33 St. Adolf’s Hospital Latest Start and Latest Finish Times

  42. I 15 12 27 48 63 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 63 69 53 63 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish 24 59 H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 19 59 59 63 E 24 9 33 35 59 St. Adolf’s Hospital Latest Start and Latest Finish Times

  43. I 15 12 27 48 63 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 63 69 53 63 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish 24 59 14 24 H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 19 59 59 63 9 19 E 24 9 33 35 59 St. Adolf’s Hospital Latest Start and Latest Finish Times

  44. I 15 12 27 Earliest start time Earliest finish time 48 63 Latest start time Latest finish time F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 63 69 53 63 2 14 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish 24 59 14 24 Critical path H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 19 59 59 63 9 19 0 9 E 24 9 33 35 59 St. Adolf’s Hospital Latest Start and Latest Finish Times

  45. St. Adolf’s Hospital Gantt Charts

  46. I 15 12 27 48 63 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 63 69 53 63 2 14 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Start Finish 24 59 14 24 H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 19 59 59 63 9 19 0 9 E 24 9 33 35 59 St. Adolf’s Hospital Activity Slack Analysis

  47. Activity Slack I 15 12 27 48 63 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 63 69 53 63 2 14 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Finish Start 24 59 14 24 H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 19 59 59 63 9 19 0 9 E 24 9 33 35 59 St. Adolf’s Hospital Activity Slack Analysis

  48. Activity Slack I 15 12 27 48 63 Slack = LS – ES or Slack = LF – EF F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 63 69 53 63 2 14 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Finish Start 24 59 14 24 H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 19 59 59 63 9 19 0 9 E 24 9 33 35 59 St. Adolf’s Hospital Activity Slack Analysis

  49. Activity Slack I 15 12 27 48 63 SlackK = 63 – 63 or SlackK = 69 – 69 F 10 A 12 0 12 12 22 53 63 2 14 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Finish Start 24 59 14 24 H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 19 59 59 63 9 19 0 9 E 24 9 33 35 59 St. Adolf’s Hospital K 6 63 69 63 69 Activity Slack Analysis

  50. Activity Slack I 15 12 27 48 63 SlackK = 0 or SlackK = 0 F 10 A 12 K 6 0 12 63 69 12 22 63 69 53 63 2 14 C 10 G 35 12 22 22 57 Finish Start 24 59 14 24 H 40 J 4 B 9 D 10 9 19 19 59 59 63 0 9 19 59 59 63 9 19 0 9 E 24 9 33 35 59 St. Adolf’s Hospital Activity Slack Analysis