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  1. PsychologyChapter 1 Notes Ryan Q. Mahoney - Instructor Lincoln Southwest High School

  2. Introduction, History, and Research Methods

  3. Psychology • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. • Uses scientific research methods. • Behavior includes all observable behavior. • Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.

  4. Modern Psychology’s Roots

  5. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) • The “father of psychology” • Founder of modern psychology • Opened the first psychology lab in 1879

  6. E.B. Titchener (1867-1927) • Analyzed the intensity, clarity and quality of the parts of consciousness • Founder of structuralism

  7. Structuralism • Studied the basic elements (structure) of thoughts and sensations.

  8. Gestalt Psychology • The whole is different from the sum of its parts. • Integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

  9. William James (1842-1910) • First American psychologist • Author of the first psychology textbook • Founder of Functionalism

  10. Functionalism • Emphasized studying the function of consciousness and how consciousness helped people adapt to their environment

  11. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • Founder of the psychoanalytic perspective • Believed that abnormal behavior originated from unconscious drives and conflicts

  12. Freud’s Influence • Influence on “pop culture” • Freudian slips • Anal-retentive • Influence on psychology • Psychodynamic theory • Unconscious thoughts • Significance of childhood experiences

  13. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) • Russian Physiologist • Studied learning in animals • Emphasized the study of observable behaviors

  14. John B. Watson (1878-1958) • Founder of behaviorism • Studied only observable and objectively described acts • Emphasized objective and scientific methodology

  15. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) • Behaviorist • Focused on learning through rewards and observation

  16. Humanistic Psychology • Stressed the study of conscious experience and an individual’s free will • Healthy individuals strive to reach their potential.

  17. Six Contemporary Psychological Perspectives

  18. Psychological Perspectives • Method of classifying a collection of ideas • Also called “schools of thought” • Also called “psychological approaches” • To view behavior from a particular perspective

  19. Cognitive Perspective • Focus: On how people think and process information • Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation

  20. Biological Perspective • Focus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or emotion • Behavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc.

  21. Social-Cultural Perspective • Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation • Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present

  22. Behavioral Perspective • Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation • Behavior is explained by previous learning

  23. Humanistic Perspective • Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential • Behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met.

  24. Psychodynamic Perspective • Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts • Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood. • Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective.

  25. Psychology’s Horizon

  26. Behavior Genetics • Focus: How behavior is affected by genes and the environment • Combines biology and behaviorism • Emphasis on the importance of both genetic and environmental factors on behavior

  27. Evolutionary Psychology • Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social perspectives • Behavior is explained by how the behavior may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.

  28. Positive Psychology • Focus: To study and promote optimal human functioning • Martin E.P. Seligman is a major advocate • Should promote building positive qualities of people

  29. Careers in Psychology

  30. Basic Research • Pure science or research • Research for the sake of finding new information and expanding the knowledge base of psychology

  31. Clinical Psychologist • Diagnose and treat patients with psychological problems • Largest number of professional psychologists

  32. Applied Research • Research designed to solve specific practical problems

  33. Research Strategies

  34. Why is Research Important?

  35. Scientific Method • Technique using tools such as observation, experimentation, and statistical analysis to learn about the world • Through its use, psychology is thereby considered a science.

  36. Research and Research Methodology • Method of asking questions then drawing logical supported conclusions • Researchers need to be able to determine if conclusions are reasonable or not (critical thinking).

  37. Common Sense • Conclusions based solely on personal experience and sensible logic • Can lead to incorrect conclusions

  38. Observation and Bias

  39. Observation • Gathering of information by simply watching subjects • Can lead to bias

  40. Bias • Situation in which a factor unfairly increases the likelihood of a researcher reaching a particular conclusion • Bias should be minimized as much as possible in research

  41. Researcher Bias • The tendency to notice evidence which supports one particular point of view or hypothesis • Objectivity tends to reduce bias.

  42. Critical Thinking • Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments or conclusions but questions their validity

  43. Participant Bias • Tendency of research subjects to respond in certain ways because they know they are being observed • The subjects might try to behave in ways they believe the researcher wants them to behave • Can be reduced by naturalistic observation

  44. Naturalistic Observation • Method of observation where subjects are observed in their “natural” environment • Subjects are not aware they are being watched • Could use hidden cameras or two way mirrors

  45. Case Studies

  46. Case Study • In depth study of one individual with the hopes of determining universal principles • This technique is very open to bias • Difficulty of applying data from one person to everyone