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Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition

Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition

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Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition

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  1. Principles of Information SystemsEighth Edition Chapter 12 Systems Development: Investigation and Analysis

  2. Principles and Learning Objectives • Effective systems development requires a team effort from stakeholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel, and it starts with careful planning • Identify the key participants in the systems development process and discuss their roles • Define the term information systems planning and list several reasons for initiating a systems project Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  3. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • Systems development often uses tools to select, implement, and monitor projects, including net present value (NPV), prototyping, rapid application development, CASE tools, and object-oriented development • Discuss the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the traditional, prototyping, rapid application development, and end-user systems development life cycles Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  4. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • Systems development often uses tools to select, implement, and monitor projects, including net present value (NPV), prototyping, rapid application development, CASE tools, and object-oriented development (continued) • Identify several factors that influence the success or failure of a systems development project • Discuss the use of CASE tools and the object-oriented approach to systems development Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  5. Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) • Systems development starts with investigation and analysis of existing systems • State the purpose of systems investigation • Discuss the importance of performance and cost objectives • State the purpose of systems analysis and discuss some of the tools and techniques used in this phase of systems development Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  6. Why Learn About Systems Development? • Important to learn how to: • Initiate systems development process • Analyze your needs with help of IS personnel • Learn how a project can be: • Planned • Aligned with corporate goals • Rapidly developed Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  7. An Overview of Systems Development • Today, users of information systems are involved in their development • Avoid costly failures of system development projects by understanding the process Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  8. Participants in Systems Development • Development team • Determines objectives of the information system • Delivers system that meets objectives • Stakeholders • People who ultimately benefit from project • Users • Managers Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  9. Participants in Systems Development (continued) • Systems development specialists • Systems analysts • Programmers • Support personnel Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  10. Participants in Systems Development (continued) Figure 12.1: Role of the Systems Analyst Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  11. Initiating Systems Development • Systems development initiatives • Arise from all levels of an organization • Can be planned or unplanned • Number of reasons for initiating systems development projects • Infrastructure protection, mergers, acquisitions, federal regulations, etc. Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  12. Initiating Systems Development (continued) Figure 12.2: Typical Reasons to Initiate a Systems Development Project Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  13. Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals • Information systems planning: translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives • Aligning organizational goals and IS goals • Critical for successful systems development effort • Developing a competitive advantage • Creative analysis • New approaches to existing problems • Critical analysis • Unbiased, careful questioning of relationship among system elements Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  14. Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals (continued) Figure 12.3: Information Systems Planning Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  15. Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals (continued) Figure 12.4: The Steps of IS Planning Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  16. Establishing Objectives for Systems Development • Overall objective of systems development: achieve business goals, not technical goals • Mission-critical systems: play pivotal role in organization’s continued operations and goal attainment • Goals defined for an organization also define objectives • Critical success factors (CSFs): factors essential to success of a functional area of an organization Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  17. Establishing Objectives for Systems Development (continued) • Performance objectives • Output quality or usefulness • Output accuracy • Output format quality or usefulness • Speed at which output is produced • Scalability of resulting system • Risk of the system Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  18. Establishing Objectives for Systems Development (continued) • Cost objectives • Development costs • Costs of uniqueness of system application • Fixed investments in hardware and related equipment • Ongoing operating costs Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  19. Systems Development Life Cycles • Activities associated with systems development life cycle (SDLC) are ongoing • The later in the SDLC an error is detected, the more expensive it is to correct • Previous phases must be reworked • More people are affected Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  20. Systems Development Life Cycles (continued) Figure 12.5: Relationship Between Timing of Errors and Costs Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  21. Systems Development Life Cycles (continued) • Common systems development life cycles • Traditional • Prototyping • Rapid application development (RAD) • End-user development Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  22. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle Figure 12.6: The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  23. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (continued) • Systems investigation: identifies problems and opportunities and considers them in light of business goals • Systems analysis: studies existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement • Systems design: defines how the information system will do what it must do to obtain the problem’s solution Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  24. The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (continued) • Systems implementation: creates or acquires various system components detailed in systems design, assembles them, and places new or modified system into operation • Systems maintenance and review: ensures the system operates as intended and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  25. Prototyping • An iterative approach • Operational prototype: functioning prototype • Accesses real data files, edits input data, makes necessary computations and comparisons, and produces real output • Nonoperational prototype: a mock-up, or model • Includes output and input specifications and formats Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  26. Prototyping (continued) Figure 12.7: Prototyping Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  27. Prototyping (continued) Figure 12.8: Refining During Prototyping Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  28. Rapid Application Development, Agile Development, Joint Application Development, and Other Systems Development Approaches • Rapid application development (RAD): employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development • Makes extensive use of joint application development (JAD) for data collection and requirements analysis • JAD often uses GSS software • Best suited for DSSs and MISs; less well suited for TPSs Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  29. Rapid Application Development, Agile Development, Joint Application Development, and Other Systems Development Approaches • Approaches that allow systems to change as they are developed • Agile development: frequent face-to-face meetings with developers and users to refine and test system • Extreme programming (XP): pairs of programmers design, test, and code system iteratively Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  30. The End-User Systems Development Life Cycle • End-user systems development: primary effort is undertaken by a combination of business managers and users • Can be structured as complementary to, rather than in conflict with, existing and emerging information systems Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  31. Outsourcing and On-Demand Computing • Reduces costs • Obtains state-of-the-art technology • Eliminates staffing and personnel problems • Increases technological flexibility Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  32. Outsourcing and On-Demand Computing (continued) Table 12.4: When to Use Outsourcing for Systems Development Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  33. Factors Affecting Systems Development Success • Successful systems development: delivers a system that meets user and organizational needs—on time and within budget • Factors • Involvement of users and stakeholders • Top management support • Degree of change • Quality of project planning • Use of project management and CASE tools • Object-oriented systems development Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  34. Degree of Change • Continuous improvement projects • High degree of success • Relatively modest benefits • Reengineering projects • High degree of risk • High potential for major business benefits • Managing change • Ability to recognize and deal with existing or potential problems Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  35. Degree of Change (continued) Figure 12.10: The degree of change can greatly affect the probability of a project’s success Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  36. Quality and Standards • Quality of project planning • Bigger the project, the more likely that poor planning will lead to significant problems • Trade-off of schedule and cost versus quality • ISO 9001 standards • Organizational experience with systems development process • Capability Maturity Model (CMM) Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  37. Use of Project Management Tools • Project schedule: detailed description of what is to be done • Project milestone: critical date for completion of a major part of the project • Project deadline: date that the entire project is to be completed and operational • Critical path: activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  38. Use of Project Management Tools (continued) • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): formalized approach for developing a project schedule • Gantt chart: graphical tool used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  39. Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools • Tools that automate many tasks required in a systems development effort and encourage adherence to SDLC • Upper-CASE tools • Investigation, analysis, and design phases • Lower-CASE tools • Implementation phase Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  40. Object-Oriented Systems Development • Object-oriented systems development (OOSD): combines logic of systems development life cycle with power of object-oriented modeling and programming • OOSD tasks • Identify potential problems and opportunities that would be appropriate for OO approach • Define user requirements Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  41. Object-Oriented Systems Development (continued) • OOSD tasks (continued) • Design system • Program or modify modules • User evaluation • Periodic review and modification Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  42. Systems Investigation • What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve? • What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide? • What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will improve an existing system or are required in a new system? • What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)? • What are the associated risks? Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  43. Initiating Systems Investigation • Systems request form: submitted by someone who wants IS department to initiate systems investigation • Problems in or opportunities for system • Objectives of systems investigation • Overview of proposed system • Expected costs and benefits of proposed system Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  44. Participants in Systems Investigation • Members of development team change from phase to phase • Systems investigation team • Upper- and middle-level managers, a project manager, IS personnel, users, and stakeholders Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  45. Participants in Systems Investigation (continued) Figure 12.12: The Systems Investigation Team Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  46. Feasibility Analysis Figure 12.13: Technical, Economic, Legal, Operational, and Schedule Feasibility Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  47. Object-Oriented Systems Investigation • Key objects can be identified during systems investigation • Use case diagram • Represents system objects (actors) and use cases (events) Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  48. Object-Oriented Systems Investigation (continued) Figure 12.14: Use Case Diagram for a Kayak Rental Application Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  49. The Systems Investigation Report • Summarizes results of systems investigation • Summarizes the process of feasibility analysis • Recommends a course of action • Continue on into systems analysis • Modify the project in some manner • Drop the project • Reviewed by steering committee Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  50. The Systems Investigation Report (continued) Figure 12.15: A Typical Table of Contents for a Systems Investigation Report Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition