Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Supports (BP-PBS): Kirsten Rice, LMSWMTSS CoordinatorKent ISDMarch 1, 2013 www.miblsi.cenmi.org
Group Expectations • To make this day the best possible, we need your assistance and participation • Be Responsible • Attend to the “Come back together” signal • Active participation…Please ask questions • Be Respectful • Please allow others to listen • Please turn off cell phones and pagers • Please limit sidebar conversations • Share “air time” • Please refrain from email and Internet browsing • Be Safe • Take care of your own needs
Acknowledgements The material for this training day was developed with the efforts of… • Christine Russell • Melissa Nantais • Kim St. Martin • Anna Harms • Steve Goodman • Mary Bechtel Content was based on the work of… • Rob Horner, University of Oregon • Scott Ross, Utah State University • Stiller, Nese, Tomlanovich, Groff, Joo & Garcia (2011)
Training Agenda: 1.0 Understanding How Schoolwide PBIS and BP- PBS Provide Bully Prevention 2.0 Comprehensive Bully Prevention Model • Teaching: - Stop - Bystander Routine - Walk - Responding to Stop • Talk - Reviewing and Practicing Routines 3.0 Continuum of Responses to Stop-Walk-Talk 4.0 Reviewing Stop-Walk-Talk 5.0 Evaluating the Implementation and Outcomes
1.0 Understanding How Schoolwide PBIS and BP-PBS Provide Bully Prevention www.miblsi.cenmi.org
How Schoolwide PBIS Prevents Bullying Behavior • Respect is a critical teaching component of or Schoolwide System • Our behavior expectation model where we as a school Define, Teach, Monitor and Reward expected behavior is our first step toward decreasing disrespectful behavior • Article by Good, McIntosh and Gietz
Independent Activity • Complete the left hand column of the anticipatory guide for the article you are about to read • Independently read pg. 48, 50, 51 (to the end of the second column) of the article entitled, “Integrating Bullying Prevention Into Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support” • Complete the right hand column of the anticipatory guide for the article you just read
Partner Activity • Discuss the following with your partner and record your responses on your PowerPoint. • Typical Responses to Bullying Behavior in Schools • The effectiveness of typical anti-bullying programs implemented in schools • Components of a broader systems-level approach to prevent behaviors that are classified as bullying behaviors
Typical Response to the Problem • The most common response is to implement a stand-alone, anti-bullying program. Such programs commonly include: • Holding school assemblies with speakers who highlight the harmful effects of bullying • Teach students how to identify bullies • Follow up with a focus on catching bullies “in the act” and providing increasingly severe punishments (Rigby, 2002; Good, McIntosh, & Gietz, 2011)
Typical Response to the Problem • Additional responses in stand-alone programs could include additional components such as: • Conflict Resolution • Peer Support Systems • Working with Individuals Identified as “Bullies” (Merrell, Gueldner, Ross & Isava, 2008; Rigby, 2002; Whitted & Dupper, 2005; Good, McIntosh, & Gietz, 2011)
Does the Typical Response Work? “Researchers and practitioners alike recognize that simple solutions such as stand-alone curriculums or targeting only a subset of students for interventions are not effective. Schools need systemic approaches that noticeably change aspects of the school culture while also teaching ALL students the skills to meet their social needs without bullying. (Olweus, 2003 as cited in IL-PBIS Technical Assistance Brief, December 2010, p.1)
Typical Bully Prevention (BP) Programs: Concerns • Tend to label and attempt to punish students demonstrating bullying-type behaviors can increase the incidents of bullying upwards of 20% • Why? • Increase in student attention • Student could draw self-confidence and self-identification from the label • Student could be targeted by others • Increasing punitive measures and zero tolerance policies have been shown to increase instances of aggression (Merrell, Gueldner, Ross, & Isava, 2008; Riby, 2002; Whitted & Dupper, 2005 )
Typical BP Programs: Concerns (con’t) • Anti-bullying programs tend to be more reactive than preventative • Why? • BP programs tend to be implemented as a response to an already significant problem • Established patterns in bullying behavior make it difficult to intervene • Escalation of negative interventions rarely produce the desired effect; BUT prevention of bullying is more likely to produce the desired outcome (Good, McIntosh, Gietz; 2011)
Typical BP Programs: Concerns (con’t) • Stand alone programs are difficult to implement and sustain • Why? • Often viewed as “add-ons” • Teacher perceptions about the effectiveness of bully prevention programs is often times related to their perceptions about the usefulness of the program and their level of preparedness to implement • Full implementation is challenging and often times, new programs are being implemented to replace existing practices before staff have been shown the effectiveness of existing practices in achieving the desired outcome (Latham, 1988; McIntosh, Horner & Sugai, 2009)
Tier Three: Intensive Supports Functional Behavioral Assessment and Individual Behavior Plans Tier Two: Targeted Supports Bully Prevention in PBIS Embedding anti-bullying into the schoolwide implementation of Positive Behavior Supports Tier One: Universal Supports Schoolwide PBIS
Schoolwide Positive Behavior & Interventions Supports “A promising alternative to the stand-alone, anti-bullying program is to include the anti-bullying program as part of a broader systems-level approach to preventing and addressing problem behaviors.” (Good, McIntosh, & Gietz, 2011; p. 50)
Core Elements of an Effective Bully Prevention Effort • Many Bully Prevention programs focus on the bully and the victim • Problem #1: Inadvertent “teaching of bullying” • Problem #2: Blame the bully • Problem #3: Ignore role of “bystanders” • Problem #4: Initial effects without sustained impact. • Problem #5: Expensive effort • What do we need? • Bully prevention that is efficient, and “fits” with existing behavior support efforts • Bully PREVENTION, not just remediation • Bully prevention with the systems that make the program sustainable.
Do not focus on “Bully” • Focus on appropriate behavior • What is the behavior you want (teach this) • (e.g., Be respectful, Be responsible, Be safe) • Focus on “non-structured”settings • Cafeteria, Gym, Playground, Hallway, Bus Area • Use same teaching format • If someone directs problem behavior toward you. • If you see others receive problem behavior • If someone tells you to “stop”
Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: The Foundation • What rewards Bullying Behavior? • Bullying is seldom maintained by feedback from adults • Likely many different rewards are effective • Most common are: • Attention from bystanders • Attention and reaction of “victim” • Self-delivered praise
Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: The Foundation • Consider the smallest change that could make the biggest impact on Bullying… • Remove the praise, attention, recognition that follows bullying. • Do this without (a) teaching bullying, or (b) denigrating children who engage in bullying.
A three part approach to school-wideBully Prevention • Establish a whole-school social culture where positive behavior is “expected” and rewards for bullying are NOT provided. • Provide training and support for adults to (a) train, (b) precorrect, and (c) provide consequences for bullying • Provide direct, individualized support for students who engage in “bullying” or “victim” behaviors.
Our Job • We need to create a culture of support for ALL students. • Behaviors that fall under the “umbrella” of bullying are reinforced by the bystander & victim responses. • Strategies needed to address bullying must be explicitly taught. • We must set up the system to evaluate the impact of the implementation efforts.
Bullying Behavior • “Bullying” is a behavior – not a trait • A person is not a “bully”. A person may engage in bullying behavior • Us vs. Them activities are also a form of bullying behavior
Academic Connection When adults in the school are not creating a safe environment and not fully protecting students, targets of bullying behavior will find their own way to cope: • Getting angry • Ignoring and Suffering • Getting Scared • Avoiding School An estimated 160,000 children each day miss school for fear of being picked on by someone at school. (Winters & Orecklin, 2000)
Academic Connection Students who exhibit bullying behavior • Tend to have higher levels of overall conduct problems • Often dislike school • Are often at risk for dropout
Why do Bully Behaviors Persist Three Main Reasons • Unknown About by Adults • Occurs when staff is not around • Unreported • Students often don’t report for fear of retaliation • Students often don’t report because there is not consistency in staff responses • Misunderstood by Adults • Thinking it’s not a big deal, these behaviors are common with kids, kids bring it on themselves, they need to learn to stand up for themselves
Ways Staff May Enable Bullying • Blame the victim • Failure of staff to act collectively to stop inappropriate behavior • Look the other way • Call it normal • Buy into myths • Bully each other • Bully students themselves
What do Targets of Bullying Behavior Need? What do Those Engaging in Bullying Behavior Need? Schoolwide and Classroom Rules about Respect Consistency in Adult Responses Intervention Support Ongoing Accountability Empathy Training Social Skills (sometimes) • Schoolwide and Classroom Rules about Respect • Consistency in Adult Responses • Others to Stand up for Them • Assertiveness Skills • Friendship Teams • Social Skills (sometimes)
2.0 Comprehensive Bully Prevention Program www.miblsi.cenmi.org
A Comprehensive Bully-Proofing Model Individual Student/Advanced Support Options Establish a Social Culture Using Universal Positive Behavior Intervention Supports Train all Staff On How to Respond To Bullying and/or Aggression Teach Social Responsibility to Students Define & Teach Expectations Monitor and Acknowledge Continuum of Consequences Behavioral Errors Data System Teach Logic for Bully Prevention Training Teach How to Train Student Skills Teach How to Respond to Problem Behavior Teach “Stop” Routine Teach Bystander Routine Teach Being Asked to “Stop” Teach a Recruit Help Routine Function-based Support for Student Exhibiting Bully Behavior Function-based Support for Victim
Building Consensus and Commitment • For middle and high school, always conduct pre-implementation survey, and pre-implementation focus groups. (Student Advisory, pg 14) • For elementary schools, conduct discussions with families, faculty and staff. • Use existing ODR, suspension, expulsion, discussion data. • Share the information with families, students, faculty, staff
Student Advisory (middle/high school) • 8-10 students selected for leadership/contribution • 60-90 min • Content of discussion: • 1. Is disrespectful behavior a problem? • What is impact of disrespectful behavior on ability of others to succeed in school? • 2. Disrespectful behavior typically keeps happening because it results in attention from peers. • 3. We need common (school-wide) routines for: • A) Stop Routine (signal that behavior should stop) • If someone is disrespectful toward you • B) Bystander Routine • If you encounter someone being disrespectful toward others • B) Stopping Routine (what to do when someone asks you to “stop” • C) Recruiting Help Routine (Getting help when you feel unsafe)
Teach “Stop, Walk, Talk” Routine • Teach a Three-Step Skill that can be used in all places at all times • If a student encounters a disrespectful behavior: WALK TALK STOP
Lesson 1 • Re-teach Schoolwide Rules including Respect • Activity • Elementary: Candle Demonstration • Secondary: Common Responses to Disrespectful Behavior • Stop Signal (with practice) • Examples and Non-examples of when to use the signal • Walk Away • Bystander Routine • Talk
Lesson 1 • Teachers will begin by leading a discussion of what Respect means at their school. • Use the Schoolwide Matrix to assist with this part of the lesson • Use both examples and non-examples • This likely will be done through whole class discussion although other formats can be used
Lesson 1 • Discuss how peers respond when they see bullying behavior. What is helpful? What is not helpful? • Talk about how peer attention comes in many forms: • Arguing with someone that teases you • Laughing at someone being picked on • Watching problem behavior and doing nothing
Lesson 1: Elementary • The Candle Under the Glass Cup • Essential step to the program • Giving “Oxygen” to the behavior becomes a common thread and common language used to describe what target are doing if they do not use the Stop, Walk, Talk Routine • Giving “Oxygen to the behavior describes what bystanders are doing if they do not use the Bystander Routine
Common Responses from Students when they encounter disrespectful behavior
The candle under a glass cup Materials Needed: • Small candle • Clear glass cup that can fit over the top of the candle • Matches or lighter
Developing a SchoolwideStop Signal • If someone is directing problem behavior to a student, or someone that student is with, students will tell them to “stop.” • What is the “Stop Signal” for your school? • Need a physical as well as a verbal signal • Some suggestions for physical signal: • Eye contact/step back, hand up • Some suggestions for verbal signal: • “Stop”“That’s not cool”“Cut it out”“Knock it off” • How to Build Consensus Around a Stop Signal? • Staff Vote (tournament style) • Student Input
High School/Middle School Suggestion: • At the Secondary Level this likely will not be successful without student input • Especially when determining a stop signal • It may work best for students to teach the lessons along with or instead of the teachers • Or consider the use of student videos • 8-10 students selected for leadership/contribution through a Student Advisory • Refer to the Student Advisory section (pg 14 in manual) if you are in a High School or Middle School. Consider this option as we move through the activities and lessons.
Team Time The Stop Signal Elementary Discuss possible stop signals and words to be used at your building How will you get consensus/buy-in from staff? Secondary Review the Student Advisory sections (pages 14-17) in your manual How will you select students? What possible options for stop signals could you provide the advisory?
Lesson 1 Teaching the Schoolwide Stop Signal • When teachers are teaching students, give examples & non-examples when to use the signal, and when it is not appropriate to use the signal • Model use of the signal when they experience problem behavior AND when they see another student experiencing problem behavior. • Signal should be given with … • Physical signal, eye contact, clear voice
Lesson 1 Practicing theSchoolwide Stop Signal • Be Sure Students Understand WhyThey Should Use the Stop Signal • Takes the “oxygen” away from the behavior • Relate back to the candle activity from the lesson • Issues with the Stop Signal • Some students may use too much enthusiasm when they use the signal • May end up giving more attention to the behavior
Partner Activity 1’s tell 2’s how you would help students keep their STOP from being overly animated 2’s tell 1’s a way a student may misuse the “STOP” and end up giving the aggressor more attention
Lesson 1 • Options for “Practice” • Classroom Discussion • Scenarios read by teacher and students rate when students follow routines • Develop Role Plays for Students • Role plays do not have to include an actual disrespectful behavior • Student can meerly say “I did something disrespectful”. • Videos of Kids Demonstrating Routines
Lesson 1 Teaching the Walk Routine • Remind students that walking away removes the reinforcement for problem behavior • Teach students to encourage one another when they use the appropriate response • Practice "walking away" with student volunteers at the front of the class • Include at least 3 examples of how to "walk away" and at least one example of when not to.
Lesson 1 Teaching the WalkRoutine • Be Sure Students Understand WhyThey Should Walk Away • Even when we use the Stop Signal, sometimes problem behavior continues. • When this happens we should walk away from the problem behavior. • Explain that most socially initiated problem behavior is maintained by peer attention. • Explain that walking away removes the reinforcement for much aggressive behavior. **We are taking away the oxygen by walking away**
Lesson 1 Teaching Bystander Routine • Saying stop when someone elseis being treated disrespectfully is a skill kids need to learn • Need to Teach Students: • Even if all you do is “watch” a bad situation, you are providing attention that rewards disrespectful behavior. You are providing oxygen to the behavior (again refer to candle/fire activity)