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The Drug Free Workplace

The Drug Free Workplace

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The Drug Free Workplace

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  1. The Drug Free Workplace EAP Works a division of North Pines Center, Inc. CEO, Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP 770-449-1111 Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  2. Primary Objectives • Provide a safe, healthy, and secure workplace; • Ensure that all employees perform their job duties in a safe, efficient and productive manner; • Ensure equipment and facilities do not pose undue risk or harm: • Properly maintained, and • Operated appropriately • “Drug and Alcohol Free Workplace” policy protects health, safety, & welfare of employees and citizens Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  3. Training Objectives By the end of this class, you will be able to: • Effectively discuss Drug Free Workplace policy • Identify signs and symptoms of possible drug use and alcohol misuse • Know how to document behaviors leading to “reasonable suspicion” • Know the legal issues surrounding this policy • Use the Employee Assistance Program, EAP, as a valuable referral source Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  4. For Your Safety These Tests Have Been Made Legal • Pre-Employment • Random (optional, check with your HR dept) • After-Care • Return to Duty • Reasonable Suspicion • Post Accident • Consent Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  5. Substances We Test For & Related Indicators • Marijuana (slow reaction time/lack of coordination) • Cocaine (dilated pupils/runny nose) • Amphetamines (restless/talkative) • Methamphetamines (nervousness/excitement) • Opiates (restlessness/drowsiness) • Phencyclidine (lack of concentration/mood swings) • Alcohol (staggering/slurred speech) • Other controlled substances (drowsiness/jitters/impaired vision) Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  6. What Is Reasonable Suspicion? • Circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to believe that it is more likely than not that a person has used drugs or misused alcohol in violation of the policy. • Factors include: job performance, speech, appearance, behavior, odor, pattern of unsafe behavior, demonstrably unsafe behavior for which there is no reasonable explanation, direct observation, credible information provided by others, possession of substance, etc. Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  7. Who Will Be Randomly Tested? • Know if your policy includes Random Testing • Most policies include • CDL Employees • Safety Sensitive Employees • Check with HR Dept Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  8. SUPERVISORS ARE THE FRONT LINE!!! • Responsible for: • Realizing and recognizing potential problem(s) • Looking for indicators • We rely on you for: • Documenting changes over time • Having multiple indicators, since taken alone, each indicator could be caused by something other than substance abuse Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  9. Prohibited Conduct • Unauthorized use, possession, sale, or solicitation, • Hindering, obstructing or refusing to undergo a drug or alcohol test, • Tampering with a sample, • Impaired ability to satisfactorily or safely perform job duties, • Abusing or misusing prescription drugs or over the counter medication. Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  10. Your Responsibility Job Performance/Workplace Behavior Process: • Observe Behavior • Immediately document behaviors observed • Talk privately to employee about concerns and observation • Let employee respond • Ask to submit to “fitness-for-duty” urine screening test • Maintain Confidentiality Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  11. If Employee Refuses To Test • Explain that action is in violation of policy • Ask to submit to test again • Explain that refusal will lead to termination for insubordination • Always contact Human Resources! Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  12. Responsibility • Supervisor or designee should transport persons to testing facility • Employee must not eat or drink anything once notified • Employee should be taken within 2-hours after notification • Employee cannot opt out of test once notified Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  13. Behaviors to Anticipate • Denial • Denial of problem • Claims someone is after him/her • Threats • Threatens to go to attorney • Makes scene • Threatens to quit • Rationalization • Makes excuses for behavior • Angry Outburst • Becomes angry • Crying • Screaming • Yelling

  14. Remember These 5 Steps • Know importance of your role • Know policy to explain to employees • Recommend EAP counseling also • Focus on job performance issues and/or behavioral concerns • Follow up with employee Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  15. Alcohol Testing Procedures • Breathalyzer used to determine if alcohol is present in the body and the concentration level: • First test is a screening test • Second test is a confirmation test • Alcohol Concentration level: • .01 or higher (retest) • Alcohol Concentration level • .04 or higher • Presumed violation, severe disciplinary action • Medical Review Officer (MRO) is not involved since it is not a medical procedure

  16. Drug Testing Procedures • Urinalysis done to detect drug use • Sample provided by employee • Temperature of sample taken • Sample observed for impurities/discolorations • Sample sealed, tagged, and initialed • Sample sent to NIDA approved lab for testing • Chain of Custody & Control form completed, Medical Review Officer involved • Screening test on sample

  17. Important Things To Know! • Alcohol test results of .04 or higher • Employee presumed to be in violation of policy • Any detectible amount of drugs creates presumption employee is in violation of policy • Discipline for any violation of policy is gross misconduct and will result in severe disciplinary action • After testing for reasonable suspicion, send home on paid leave until HR notify director of results • SEEK EMPLOYEE CONSENT BEFORE TESTING!!! (If Reasonable Suspicion or Random Selection, you do not need consent, but nice to ask) Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  18. Silence Is Golden • Only authorized person(s) will be notified of test results • Violation of confidentiality is considered gross misconduct and appropriate disciplinary action will follow Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  19. Testing Facility Location • Check with your HR dept for the approved testing location • Most often the company provides you the paperwork to take with you to the testing site Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  20. Effective Supervisor Guidelines • Be Attentive • Accidents • Frequent lateness • Mood swings • Observant • Specific aspect of job performance lacking • Immediately Document • Focus on Job Performance • Don’t judge (don’t accuse, review observations/concerns) • Don’t diagnose • Don’t counsel • Don’t make promises

  21. Effective Supervisor Guidelines • Be Thoughtful • Stay non-judgmental • Recognize employee’s point of view • Be straightforward • Stick to facts • Don’t get sidetracked • Be Consistent • Follow same procedures for everyone Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  22. Effective Supervisor Guidelines, con. • Maintain Confidentiality • Talk privately to employee • Keep conversation private • Don’t review or discuss circumstances with anyone who does not have a need to know • Refer • Encourage using EAP counseling benefits for personal problems; alcohol, drugs, divorce, grief, parenting, etc. • Follow Up • Assess employee’s work performance for a period of time. One year is often recommended Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  23. What Must Be Evaluated • To make a reasonable suspicion determination, a supervisor must evaluate: • Specific, contemporaneous and articulate observations concerning appearance, behavior, speech, or body odors of the employee consistent with possible drug use or alcohol misuse Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  24. Typical Supervisory Concerns • Loss of employee confidence/support • Jeopardizing employee’s ability to make a living • Do not like confrontation • Possible loss of productivity • Lack of training • Fear of personal safety Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  25. Training Will Include • Role and responsibility of supervisors • How to recognize signs and symptoms of drug use • How to recognize signs and symptoms of alcohol misuse • Short-term indicators • Long-term indicators • Initiating, substantiating and documenting • Employee Intervention • Record keeping/documenting event Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  26. Short-Term Objective Facts • Observable physical evidence (drugs and paraphernalia) • Symptoms of drug use and/or alcohol misuse • Unstable walking • Poor physical coordination • Bloodshot or watery eyes • Hand tremors Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  27. Short-Term Objective Facts (cont.) • Combative behavior • Unusual restlessness • Disorientation • Dilated or constricted pupils • Slow reactions or slurred speech Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  28. Long-Term Objective Facts • Due to lack of frequent contact by supervisors, long-term indicators are more reliable when documenting performance or behavior problems associated with illicit drug use or alcohol misuse. However, long-term indicators may not, alone, be grounds for reasonable suspicion. Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  29. Long-Term Objective Facts (cont.) • Work performance problems (quality and quantity) • Personality changes • Moodiness • Aggressiveness • Depression • Fearfulness • Paranoia • Anxiety • Chronic problems • Tardiness • Absenteeism (Mondays, after holidays, and paydays)

  30. Long-Term Objective Facts (cont.) • Chronic problems (cont.) • Leaves work without notice • Accidents • Poor judgment • Difficulty in concentrating • Gives improbable excuses for absences • Personal hygiene and physical appearance • Social withdrawal • Isolation • Overreaction to criticism • Lack of eye contact Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  31. Effects of Alcohol Consumption • Flushing • Dizziness • Dulling of senses • Impairment of coordination, reflexes, memory, and judgment • Loss of inhibitions • Staggering • Slurred speech • Double Vision • Sudden mood changes • Unconsciousness

  32. Alcoholism Cancers or the liver, stomach, colon, larynx, esophagus, and breast Brain damage High blood pressure, heart attacks, and strokes Stomach and duodenal ulcers Colitis Alcohol hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver Impotence and infertility Birth defects and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Premature aging Kidney damage Pancreas damage Alcohol Consumption Health Risks Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  33. Effects of a Hangover • Headache • Nausea • Dizziness • Dry throat • Eye ache • Shaking Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  34. Skills Impaired by Alcohol Use • Vision – ability to see the whole field of vision • Reaction time – ability to recognize and respond quickly • Concentration – attention span is limited • Coordination - ability to physically control a vehicle is affected • Reflexes - the body’s ability to respond to the brain’s commands is slowed Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  35. Skills Impaired by Alcohol Use (cont.) • Perception - the brain’s ability to recognize visual images is slowed • Judgment - the person’s ability to understand what is going on is impaired • Comprehension - the brain’s ability to understand what is going on is impaired Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  36. Skills Impaired By A Hangover • Concentration • Reflexes • Professionalism • Coordination • Judgment • Politeness • Perception • Comprehension Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  37. Slows reaction time Decreases awareness of the road Decreases awareness of vehicle control Reduces peripheral vision Diminishes estimates of time and distance Impairs coordination Impairs judgment Impairs concentration Diminishes capacity to perform complex functions Reduces short term memory Reduces awareness and perception of diminished skill levels Effects Of Marijuana Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  38. Pot Grass Weed Joint Reefer Dope Roach Hash Bud Mary Jane Common Names For Marijuana Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  39. Marijuana Use Facts • The amount of marijuana required to generate a high depends on: • THC content of the marijuana • Individual’s weight, height, and body type • Driving skills are impaired for 4 to 6 hours after smoking one joint, but some people show effects for up to 24 hours • The THC may stay in a person’s system for up to 30 days or longer Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  40. Accelerated heart rate Constricted blood vessels Dilated pupils Increased blood pressure Nasal congestion Runny nose Disintegration of mucus membranes of the nose Addiction Seizures Cardiac arrest Respiratory alert Stroke Death Collapsed nasal septum Health Risks of Cocaine Use Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  41. Personal Characteristics Associated With Cocaine Use • False sense of power, control, alertness, well-being, confidence, and strength • Impulsive • Unpredictable • Paranoid • Reckless Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  42. After-Effects of Cocaine Use • Restlessness • Anxiety • Depression • Exhaustion • Mental Fatigue • Irritability • Paranoia • Intensive craving for drug • Preoccupation with drug • Overall discomfort Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  43. Effects of Crack Use • Short, intense high • Abrupt halt to high • Deep depression • Intense craving for more drug Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  44. Coke Blow Snow Speedball Flake Crack Freebase Base Rock Snort Eightball Toot Common Names For Cocaine Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  45. Potential Victims of Cocaine Use By CDL/Safety Sensitive Employees • Passengers • Others on the road • Co-workers • Public confidence • Drug user • User’s family • User’s friends • Pedestrians • Society Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  46. Restlessness Irritability Talkativeness Tenseness Hyperactivity Violent behavior Impaired judgment False sense of alertness Diminished concentration Over self-confidence Psychological addiction Brain damage Suicidal depression Effects of Amphetamine Use Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  47. After-Effects of Amphetamine Use • Depression • Confusion • Intense Fatigue Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  48. Characteristics of Methamphetamines • Synthetic drug • Stimulates movement and speed • Generates feelings of excitement • Results in nervousness, insomnia, and paranoia • Post use depression, fatigue, and inability to experience pleasure • Addictive Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  49. Speed Uppers Poppers Meth Bennies Crank White crosses Ecstasy Dexies Crystal Juice Black beauties Amphetamines/Methamphetamines Common Street Names Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP

  50. Effects of Opiate Use • Relief of pain • Drowsiness • Restlessness • Indifference • Relaxation • Slow reflexes • Accident prone Ken Scroggs LPC, LCSW, LMFT, CEAP