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The Foreign Exchange Market

The Foreign Exchange Market

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The Foreign Exchange Market

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  1. The Foreign Exchange Market

  2. Asian Currencies vs. U.S. Dollar

  3. The Foreign Exchange Market Definitions: 1. Spot exchange rate 2. Forward exchange rate 3. Appreciation 4. Depreciation Currency appreciates, country’s goods prices  abroad and foreign goods prices  in that country 1. Makes domestic businesses less competitive 2. Benefits domestic consumers FX traded in over-the-counter market 1. Trade is in bank deposits denominated in different currencies

  4. The Foreign Exchange Market D S Exchange rate Peso/$ Supply of Dollars by people who want pesos Demand for Dollars by people who have pesos Foreign exchange (dollars)

  5. Currency Depreciation and Appreciation • Currency depreciation is an increase in the number of units of a particular currency needed to purchase one unit of foreign exchange • Currency appreciation is a decrease in the number of units of a particular currency needed to purchase one unit of foreign exchange

  6. Changes in the Equilibrium Exchange Rate Supply of Dollars by people who want pesos D Exchange rate Peso/$ S S’ $ -depreciation Peso- appreciation Demand for Dollars by people who have pesos Foreign exchange (dollars)

  7. Exchange Rate Regimes • Flexible (Floating) exchange rates. • Fixed exchange rates. • Currency Board • Monetary Union • Managed Float (Dirty Float) exchange rates.

  8. The Central Bank Can Intervene to Maintain Exchange Rates D’’ Exchange rate $/pound S D’ Foreign exchange (pounds)

  9. China

  10. Currency Crisis D’ Exchange rate Baht/$ D S 52 25 Foreign exchange ($)

  11. Asian Currencies vs. U.S. Dollar

  12. Law of One Price Example: American steel $100 per ton, Japanese steel 10,000 yen per ton If E = 50 yen/$ then prices are: American Steel Japanese Steel In U.S. $100 $200 In Japan 5000 yen 10,000 yen If E = 100 yen/$ then prices are: American Steel Japanese Steel In U.S. $100 $100 In Japan 10,000 yen 10,000 yen Law of one price E = 100 yen/$

  13. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) PPP  Domestic price level  10%, domestic currency  10% 1. Application of law of one price to price levels 2. Works in long run, not short run Problems with PPP 1. All goods not identical in both countries: Toyota vs Chevy 2. Many goods and services are not traded: e.g. haircuts

  14. Big Mac Index

  15. PPP: U.S. and U.K

  16. Basic Principle: If factor increases demand for domestic goods relative to foreign goods, E Factors Affecting E in Long Run

  17. Exchange Rates in the Short Run • An exchange rate is the price of domestic assets in terms of foreign assets • Using the theory of asset demand—the most important factor affecting the demand for domestic (dollar) assets and foreign (euro) assets is the expected return on these assets relative to each other

  18. Comparing Expected Returns I

  19. Comparing Expected Returns II

  20. Comparing Expected Returns III

  21. Interest Parity Condition • Capital mobility with similar risk and liquidity  the assets are perfect substitutes • The domestic interest rate equals the foreign interest rate minus the expected appreciation of the domestic currency • Expected returns are the same on both domestic and foreign assets • An equilibrium condition

  22. Demand and Supply for Domestic Assets • Demand • Relative expected return • At lower current values of the dollar (everything else equal), the quantity demanded of dollar assets is higher • Supply • The amount of bank deposits, bonds, and equities in the U.S. • Vertical supply curve

  23. Exchange Rate Overshooting • Monetary Neutrality • In the long run, a one-time percentage rise in the money supply is matched by the same one-time percentage rise in the price level • The exchange rate falls by more in the short run than in the long run • Helps to explain why exchange rates exhibit so much volatility

  24. The Dollar and Interest Rates • While there is a strong correspondence between real interest rates and the exchange rate, the relationship between nominal interest rates and exchange rate movements is not nearly as pronounced

  25. Exchange Rate Regimes • Fixed exchange rate regime • Value of a currency is pegged relative to the value of one other currency (anchor currency) • Floating exchange rate regime • Value of a currency is allowed to fluctuate against all other currencies • Managed float regime (dirty float) • Attempt to influence exchange rates by buying and selling currencies

  26. Past Exchange Rate Regimes • Gold standard • Fixed exchange rates • No control over monetary policy • Influenced heavily by production of gold and gold discoveries • Bretton Woods System • Fixed exchange rates using U.S. dollar as reserve currency • International Monetary Fund (IMF)

  27. Past Exchange Rate Regimes (cont’d) • Bretton Woods System (cont’d) • World Bank • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) • World Trade Organization • European Monetary System • Exchange rate mechanism

  28. How a Fixed Exchange Rate Regime Works • When the domestic currency is overvalued, the central bank must purchase domestic currency to keep the exchange rate fixed, but as a result, it loses international reserves • When the domestic currency is undervalued, the central bank must sell domestic currency to keep the exchange rate fixed, but as a result, it gains international reserves

  29. How Bretton Woods Worked • Exchange rates adjusted only when experiencing a ‘fundamental disequilibrium’ (large persistent deficits in balance of payments) • Loans from IMF to cover loss in international reserves • IMF encourages contractionary monetary policies • Devaluation only if IMF loans are not sufficient • No tools for surplus countries • U.S. could not devalue currency

  30. Managed Float • Hybrid of fixed and flexible • Small daily changes in response to market • Interventions to prevent large fluctuations • Appreciation hurts exporters and employment • Depreciation hurts imports and stimulates inflation • Special drawing rights as substitute for gold

  31. European Monetary System • 8 members of EEC fixed exchange rates with one another and floated against the U.S. dollar • ECU value was tied to a basket of specified amounts of European currencies • Fluctuated within limits • Led to foreign exchange crises involving speculative attack

  32. Capital Controls • Outflows • Promote financial instability by forcing a devaluation • Controls are seldom effective and may increase capital flight • Lead to corruption • Lose opportunity to improve the economy • Inflows • Lead to a lending boom and excessive risk taking by financial intermediaries

  33. Capital Controls (cont’d) • Inflows (cont’d) • Controls may block funds for productions uses • Produce substantial distortion and misallocation • Lead to corruption • Strong case for improving bank regulation and supervision

  34. The IMF: Lender of Last Resort • Emerging market countries with poor central bank credibility and short-run debt contracts denominated in foreign currencies have limited ability to engage in this function • May be able to prevent contagion • The safety net may lead to excessive risk taking (moral hazard problem)

  35. How Should the IMF Operate? • May not be tough enough • Austerity programs focus on tight macroeconomic policies rather than financial reform • Too slow, which worsens crisis and increases costs

  36. Direct Effects of the Foreign Exchange Market on the Money Supply • Intervention in the foreign exchange market affects the monetary base • U.S. dollar has been a reserve currency: monetary base and money supply is less affected by foreign exchange market

  37. Balance-of-Payments Considerations • Current account deficits in the U.S. suggest that American businesses may be losing ability to compete because the dollar is too strong • U.S. deficits mean surpluses in other countries large increases in their international reserve holdingsworld inflation

  38. Exchange Rate Considerations • A contractionary monetary policy will raise the domestic interest rate and strengthen the currency • An expansionary monetary policy will lower interest rates and weaken currency

  39. Advantages of Exchange-Rate Targeting • Contributes to keeping inflation under control • Automatic rule for conduct of monetary policy • Simplicity and clarity

  40. Disadvantages of Exchange-Rate Targeting • Cannot respond to domestic shocks and shocks to anchor country are transmitted • Open to speculative attacks on currency • Weakens the accountability of policymakers as the exchange rate loses value as signal

  41. Exchange-Rate Targeting for Industrialized Countries • Domestic monetary and political institutions are not conducive to good policy making • Other important benefits such as integration