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Individuals

Individuals

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Individuals

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  1. Individuals ESC 556 week 4

  2. Indiviudal • Basic unit • Individuals vary in their conditions • Asexual reproduction

  3. Unitary vs. Modular organisms • Unitary organisms • Determined form • Form and sequence • Modular organisms • Units that can produce similar units • Sessile • Plants – leaves & flowers • Genet • Much greater variation • Time sequences apply to each module • Death results from external factors

  4. Ecological Physiology • Internal adjustments to external changes • Resist/tolerate • Regulation & Adaptation • Migration • A lot of different environments • Homeostasis – sea to freshwater & land • Conformation & regulation • Eury vs. steno • Poikilo vs. homoio • Ectotherms vs. endotherms

  5. Resistance and Tolerance • Stress response • Response curve • Individual differences • Tolerance vs. resistance • Deserts, arctic/antarctic, wavy shores

  6. DESERTS • Low densities of life and biodiversity • Dry / daily temperature fluctuations • Conserve water and control temperature • Xerophytes • Seeds at dry periods • Allelopathy • Animals – small & active at night • Snakes & Lizards • Metabolic water • Insulation • Tolerant of dehydration and body temperature fluctuations

  7. adaptation • Evolutionary changes over time • Survive competition & complex environmental variables • Long vs. short term adaptation (acclimatization)

  8. METABOLIC rate • Amount of energy used per unit time • Growth, reproduction, body maintenance, locomotion • Metabolic rates vary • Basal metabolic rate vs. daily energy expenditure • Life style and body size • Ectotherms – poikilothermic • Endotherms – homoiothermic • 25-30 X

  9. METABOLIC rate • Body size • Large organisms • Relative to their body mass

  10. METABOLIC rate • Ectotherm strategy – Low energy system • Low resting metabolic rate, torpor, serpentine shapes • Very abundant and diverse • Endotherms – High energy system • Independent of environmental conditions • Foraging at night, inhabiting high latitudes • Lower production efficiency • Assimilation efficiency • 20-90% • Respiration, growth & reproduction • Growth & reproduction efficiency

  11. Locomotion • Inertia & drag • Reynolds number • Aquatic organisms • Locomotory activity • Reduction in sinking rates – spines/body extensions

  12. behaviour • Survive and reproduce • obtain food, avoid predation, find mates & resources • Respond by growth (plants) or locomotion (animals) • Energetic consequences and requirements

  13. Sedentary or mobile • Sessile organisms • Low energy but risky • Protective mechanisms • Tolerating environmental conditions or stable habitat selection • Food capture indirect • Sexual reproduction difficult • Dispersal at any life stage • Mobile organisms • Escape mechanisms • Taxic behaviour & dispersal • Food search • Sexual reproduction easier • Dispersal at any life stage

  14. Behavioral mechanisms • Response to biotic and abiotic stimuli • Growth – sexual reproduction • Costs and benefits • Plants • No nervous system – chemical coordination • Tropisms • Phototropism, geotropisms • Nasties • Non-directional movements of part of a plant

  15. dIspersal and migration • Passive vs. active dispersal • Individual activities  population level consequences • Seasonal, diurnal or tidal cycles effects • Migration: movement of groups of individuals • Key points • Minimize intraspecific competition • Colonize new niches • Response to variation in conditions and resources

  16. Avoidance and dispersal • Avoid competition between future generations and parents • Adverse conditions, resource limitations, competition • Spatial avoidance • Temporal avoidance • Diapause • Hibernation • Aestivation • Migration

  17. Behavioral mechanisms • Animals • Nervous system • Chemical responses • Innate behaviours • Genetically-based – taxes, kineses & instinctive behaviour • Learned behaviour – habituation & conditioning • Imprinting • Feeding behaviour • Social behaviour – e.g. altruism

  18. Reproduction • Genetic material transfer from parental generation to progeny • Asexual • Single parent • Mitosis - Clones • Mutation • Types • Fission • Sporulation • Budding • Fragmentation • Vegetative propagation

  19. mitosis

  20. reproduction • Sexual Reproduction • Two parents • Fusion of haploid gametes • Energetically costly • Broadcast fertilization • Meiosis • Recombination • Advantages • Variation • Sperm & ova vs. + & - • Dioecious • Hermaphrodites • Parthenogenesis

  21. Life Cycles and Life history strategy • Zygote of one generation to the next • Alternation of generations • Sporophyte and gametophyte generations

  22. Life Cycles and Life history strategy • Cyclic polymorphism

  23. Life Cycles and Life history strategy • Parasite life cycles

  24. Life Cycles and Life history strategy • Life history • Growth, differentiation, reproduction • Abiotic and biotic interactions • Evolutionary processes • Plasticity • Size • Growth & Development Rates • Reproduction • Storage mechanisms • Dormancy

  25. Size • Species, individuals, life stages • Advantages of increased size • Higher competitive ability  reproductive success • Increase success as a predator • Decrease predation risk • Reduced surface:volume ratio • Better homeostatic control • Bergmans’s rule • Disadvantages of increased size • Preferred food items • Greater energy requirement

  26. Growth and Development Rates • Development: differentiation of morphological and physiological processes • Development vs. growth • Different rates and strategies of development • Early • Arrested

  27. Reproduction • Diverse strategies

  28. reproduction • Iteroparous vs. semelparous reproduction • Method of fertilization & parental care • Broadcast fertilization • Copulation

  29. Storage Mechanisms • Irregular supply of resources • Accumulation during abundance • Fats, starch, glucose • Food stores

  30. Dormancy • Periods of adversity • Minimal metabolic activity • Facultative vs. obligate • Forms • Resting spores or buds • Diapause • Hibernation • Aestivation • Resistant external coat • Synchorinization • Predictive vs. consequential strategies

  31. Feeding strategies and mechanisms

  32. Feeding strategies and mechanisms • Photoautotrophs • Light • Nutrients • Water • Carbon Dioxide • Terrestrial plants • Water & Nutrients • Aquatic plankton • Light & Nutrients • Insectivorous plants & nitrogen fixing nodules (legumes) • Photoheterotrophs

  33. Feeding strategies and mechanisms • Heterotrophs • Holozoic • Symbiotic • Parasitic • Feeder types • Microphagous • Macrophagous • Fluid feeders • Saprophytes

  34. Holozoic nutrition

  35. Symbiotic nutrition • Mutualism • Corals • Ruminant mammals • Commensalism

  36. ParasitiC Nutrition • Ectoparasites & Endoparasites • Obligate vs. facultative

  37. MicrophagousFeeders • Pseudopodia & food vacuoles • Cilia • Filter feeders • Setose/ciliary mechanisms

  38. MacrophagousFeeders • Scraping & boring • Tentacular • Whole ingestion • Biting and chewing • Detritus

  39. Fluid feeders • Sucking – proboscis • Piercing & sucking