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  1. Candide By: Sandrine Tobasco, Chloe SnyderHill, and Tessa Parrayray (Sandrine Duboscq, Chloe Snyder, and Tessa Parrish)

  2. Humerous Utterance “Pacquettehad continued to practice her profession but without a shadow of profit to herself.”(pg.141) This is a humorous utterance because it isfunny to the reader, who understands what Pacquette does,but not to the character because it means the loss of her livelihood.

  3. Cosmic Irony • Candide is constantly getting into trouble or finding himself in the midst different horrors. Cosmic irony is illustrated by his measly lot in life, starting when he is kicked out of Thunder -ten-tronckh, and close to the end when he finds himself miserable as he works on his farm with his companions. It seems as if a higher power must be working against Candide.

  4. Travesty • One day Cunegunde was walking near the house in a little coppice, called “the park”, when she saw Dr. Pangloss behind some bushes giving a lesson in experimental physics to her mother's waiting-woman, a pretty little brunette who seemed eminently teachable.” (21) • Travesty is illustrated here by the subject of physics being used as a metaphor for coitus. This is treating a subject such as the sciences in an undignified way.

  5. Unstable Irony • Dr. Pangloss exemplifies unstable irony by constantly clinging to his idea that everything is for the best, even while he is about to be hanged after the earthquake. He even keeps defending his views while debating with Martin, who seems to make much more sense to the reader.

  6. Parody Parody is seen on page 20, where, through Pangloss, Voltaire seems to make fun of Leibniz's ideas. For example, Pangloss shares Leibniz's views, but he makes them sound even more ridiculous: "Our noses were made to carry spectacles, so we have spectacles. Legs were clearly intended for breeches, and we wear them" (20).

  7. Menippean/Varronian Satire The entire story of Candide is an example of Menippean/Varronian satire, an informal satire that may use different forms of prose. In Candide, Voltaire uses dialogue and events to prove his points about philosophy, often having his characters directly debate about their philosophies in life, or proving and disproving those philosophies using surrounding events.

  8. Romantic Irony Romantic irony can be seen on page 44, when Voltaire describes a scene in which Candide and Cunegonde have sat down to relax and enjoy each others' company. Then at the beginning of chapter 9, Don Issachar immediately interrupts, thus destroying the mood and the illusion of warmth, especially when Candide accidentally kills him.

  9. Aphorism Aphorism is displayed by Martin while he and Candide are in France: "'I am more than ever convinced that man is evil', said Martin" (108). This is an aphorism because Martin is diminishing the serious truth that men have at least some evil in them and that this can be seen in many ways.

  10. Tendency Wit At the end of Candide, the great Dr. Pangloss stays stubborn and sticks to his first philosophy that states that everything is for the best. On page 144, Pangloss once more speaks about how the chain of terrible events that occurred in Candide's life had to have happened to bring the group to their best of all possible worlds.

  11. Black Humor An example of black humor is in chapters 27 and 28,in which Voltaire made light of the somewhat dark scene of Pangloss being executed. Pangloss survived the hanging, however, and woke up to a surgery being performed on his very alive body. The way Pangloss just seems to brush this off is funny to the audience.