The Middle ages Journey into the fascinating world of the middle ages, where knights were bold, kings and queens ruled, and everything was so different than what we have today.
The Feudal System The Feudal System was an important part in medieval society. It sorted out people by social ranking. First came the royal family (king and queen), who ruled everyone else not by election, but because their families were rich. Then there was the knights and bishops, who fought for the king and led the church. Then came the craftspeople, who entertained the people or provided them with a good, such as metal appliances. Last and least, there was the serfs, who begged for money and worked on the farm to pay off their debt to the king.
People These people weren’t featured in the feudal system but are still important to mention. nuns: religious women who lived in communities called nunneries & never got married alchemists: medieval scientists who studied “magic” squires: young noblemen in training to be a knight heralds: messengers and announcers at tournaments crusaders: European Christian knights who tried to take control of Jerusalem noblewomen: born into a powerful family and their husbands made all their decisions monks: religious men who lived in communities called monasteries & never got married falconers: trainers of hunting birds guilds: a group of craftspeople
Knights in Shining Armor A knight had many parts of his armor that kept him well protected. His helmet protected his head, mostly the top of the head to protect the brain. The gorget shielded his neck in case someone was in a mood for beheading. A visor was a movable piece protecting his face. A cuisse protected a knight’s thigh. A greave shielded his shin. A set of gauntlets were metal gloves to protect the knight’s hands. A coat of mail is a chain-link suit under the knight’s armor to shield against blows that penetrate the outer armor. A tasse is like a metal skirt (ooh la la!) protecting the hip area. A cuirass is a shield for the chest. A sabaton is a heavy-duty metallic boot. And last but not least, the brassard protects the arm. (You don’t want any severed limbs, do you? No, I didn’t think so.) helmet visor gorget cuirass brassard gauntlet tasse Coat of mail cuisse greave sabaton
lluminated etters Illuminated letters were a big hit in the Middle Ages. Illuminated means bigger and better. Usually in Medieval books, the 1st letter of a chapter was illuminated. Around the border, the letters on the top and left sides are more modern. The bottom and right sides are examples of Medieval letters. Usually they had a cursive look to them, or had plants or animals connected to them to create the twists and lines of the letters.
Castle Weapons In the Middle Ages, many peoples’ jobs consisted of protecting the king and queen. But a few people can’t protect a castle from a whole army, right? Here are some of the weapons used to keep intruders out of the castle – or to massacre them before they even reach the castle. The mangonel was a huge catapult, used to launch rocks, flaming garbage, and even dead bodies over to the enemy. A moat was a large river of water running around the castle walls. It was used to keep invaders away from the castle, so they had to attack from afar. A battering ram was used by the enemy to break into the castle. It was basically a log on wheels. The enemy smashed it into the castle walls, in hopes of breaking it down. A postern gate was a secret back gate to the castle, used to evacuate the castle in case the enemy broke in. Arrow loops were small holes in the castle towers, used for archers to fire arrows out onto the unsuspecting enemy. postern gate moat arrow loops
Medieval Idioms In Medieval books, people used sayings that weren’t what they seem to mean. Those are called idioms. Here are some of them: When I agreed to do both costumes and set designing, my teacher said I had bitten off more than I could chew. Biting off more than you can chew means that you have more than you can handle. I felt like a bull in a china shop when I dropped mom’s plate. Bull in a china shop means you are very clumsy. When I got a B on the test, I made a mountain out of a molehill and freaked out. Making mountains out of molehills means you make a big deal out of everything.
I declare that this PowerPoint is now officially over! Now I shall go and eateth some royal pie!