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The Middle Ages

The Middle Ages

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The Middle Ages

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  1. The Middle Ages Life after the fall of Rome

  2. (copy) • Fall of Rome begins the Dark Ages A. 400 AD – 800 AD B. Barbarian invasions destroyed 3,000 years of art, history, and learning C. major effects: 1. cultural leadership shifted from the Mediterranean to France, Germany and Great Britain (England) 2. political leadership moved from secular (non religious) to the Christian (Catholic) church 3. Paganism was wiped out

  3. (copy) 4. art emphasis shifted from man-centered beauty of the here-and-now to the “here-after”, human body viewed as corrupt and evil a. Nudes forbidden b. Greco-Roman ideals of harmony, balance and proportion between body and mind lost D. Medieval art emphasized the human soul E. art became the servant of the Church F. Church taught DIVINE (GODLY) beauty could be understood thru material beauty (beginning of magnificent cathedrals) G. Christian architecture turned the Greco-Roman temple inside out -

  4. (copy) 1. simple on the outside, very rich and decorated on the inside

  5. Greek vs. Christian

  6. Inside an early Christian church

  7. (copy) I. Three styles developed: 1. Byzantine 2. Romanesque 3. Gothic II. Byzantine art and architecture A. from Eastern Mediterranean 330-1453 AD B. named after the city of Byzantium (later changed to Constantinople) in Turkey C. Combined early Christian art w/ Greek/Oriental designs and brilliant colors

  8. (copy) D. Byzantine art CONVENTIONS: 1. complex 2. formal 3. rigid frontal poses 4. wide staring eyes 5. tall, slim figures (thiness = holiness) 6. almond-shaped faces 7. no hint of movement 8. mostly holy figures with ‘halos’ 9. no backgrounds in artwork

  9. An “actress”, she married Justinian I, even though it was against the law. During the Nika revolt, she saved Justinian’s empire. (He was going to flee and she convinced him to stay and fight) Empress Theodora

  10. (copy) Emperor Justinian and his attendants • Note they almost seem to be : • floating off the ground; • the gold background is “heavenly”, • the figures are tall and slim (monks took a vow of poverty, so thin = holy) suggestion of bodies under the robes

  11. (Copy) • E. Byzantine art features mosaics, carved ivory, miniature paintings and ICONS – small wooden panel paintings thought to have magical properties • Tesserae – glass embedded with color to create vibrant, colorful mosaics

  12. (copy) Icons – painted on wooden panels

  13. (copy) F. Byzantine architecture 1. Most famous – The Sophia Hagia (Church of the Holy Wisdom) 2. merged Roman and Eastern styles 3. PENDENTIVES – engineering break-thru a. four arches support weight of dome b. Allows for a soaring interior with no columns to bear the weight c. 40 arched windows circle base of dome – gives illusion that the dome is resting on a halo of light

  14. Hagia Sophia

  15. inside

  16. (copy) Romanesque • Due to the weight of the stone ceiling, the walls of the church had to be very thick.  Windows had to be small to keep the strength of the wall strong.  Because of this, the churches interior was dim.  This was not solved till the gothic church design was used. 

  17. Romanesque

  18. (copy) II. Romanesque • Used elements of Roman architecture • 11th C. to 12th C. • Barbarian and Islamic attacks ended • Crusades brought back Oriental/Byzantine influences to Western Europe • Middle class began to emerge (craftsmen and merchants)

  19. (copy) II. Romanesque Churches • Enter at West • Worship towards East (toward Jerusalem) • Terms: 1. NAVE – congregation 2. LANTERNS – towers on either side of entrance 3. APSE – large semi-circular area at choir end of church; usually contains altar 4. AMBULATORIES – walkway around apse 5. TRANSEPT – intersects the nave at

  20. (copy) D. Vaults - ceilings of stone that replaced burnable wooden roofs 1.Barrel vault - semi cylindrical ceiling 2. groined vault – formed by intersection of 2 barrel vaults 3. ribbed vault –self-supporting ribs and web of material filling spaces between ribs

  21. (copy) E. Monastaries – churches with living quarters for monks; also called Abbeys 1. cloisters – living quarters for monks 2. cathedrals – churches for Bishops – include “cathedra” a chair in center of altar area

  22. Barrel vault1. barrel vault- semi cylindrical ceiling

  23. Groin vault

  24. Ribbed vault – system of self-supporting ribs and web of thinner material filling spaces between the ribs

  25. Ribbed vaults

  26. Romanesque

  27. (copy) II. Romanesque sculpture • designed to help people understand church teachings • Sculpture is part of the structure –capitals of columns • Some found over doors and under arches • Sometimes in niches • Sculpture is EXPRESSIONISTIC – emphasizes a strong emotional response instead of a natural appearance 1. sculpure is thin = holiness

  28. III. Romanesque art • Painting – mostly frescoes • Illuminated manuscripts – monks copy scripture (Bible) and EMBELLISH (decorate) page with fanciful letters and drawings 1. used parchment/vellum (calf skin), ink, tempura, and gold

  29. Stained glass – mixed color with glass, made large jewel-tone sheets, could be cut into shapes and held in place with lead channels