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Early History of Microbiology PowerPoint Presentation
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Early History of Microbiology

Early History of Microbiology

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Early History of Microbiology

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  1. Early History of Microbiology Robert Hooke Antony van Leeuwenhoek Marcello Malpighi 1650 1700 1750 1800 Francesco Redi Lazzaro Spallanzani

  2. 1800 1825 1850 1875 1900 History of Microbiology 1800-1900 Franz Schulze Theodore Schwann Koch Pasteur Lister (aseptic surgery) Jenner (vaccination) Enrico Acerbi Agostino Bassi (parasitic disease) Medicine

  3. Spontaneous Generation The idea that complex life (generally animals or plants) can arise directly from inorganic (non-living) material. --- originally espoused by early Greek philosophers (Aristotle) --- became entrenched in European culture during the Dark Ages Francesco Redi (1688) One of the first to systematically attack spontaneous generation cloth & beaker experiments Lazzaro Spallanzani (1750’s) Used heat to sterilize beef broth in flasks to show that contact with unsterilized air was required for mold growth in sterile meat broth Franz Schulze (1836) Showed that sterile oxygen was still unable to create life in sterilized broth Louis Pasteur (1860’s) Tapered flask experiments finally lay SP to rest

  4. History of Microbiology Classical Period 1850-1910 --- Much of the modern foundation of microbiology was developed in this period Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Finally killed the idea of “spontaneous generation” Helped to develop more rigorous study of microbiology Developed a vaccine (treatment) for rabies Developed the modern idea of steam attenuation Robert Koch (1843-1910): Koch’s Postulates (causality between microbes and disease) Developed “pure culturing” technique Paul Ehlich: First use of “antibiotics” (chemical toxins specific to parasites)

  5. Koch’s Postulates 1.) A single, identifiable micro-organism must be present in all cases of the disease 2.) The putative disease organism can be cultured to a single pure culture outside the host 3.) When inoculated into a susceptible host the organism causes symptoms equivalent to the original host 4.) The organism can be isolated from the experimentally inoculated host --- Lead to a systematic study of disease mechanism that helped to push modern medicine forward --- Today we know that the postulates are NOT universally applicable (but are still a good place to start)

  6. Martinus Beijerinck: Contributed to understanding elemental cycling Microbial communities Enrichment culturing Sergei Winogradsky: discovered chemoautotrophy Modern Era (1950- present) --- development of the idea of comparative biochemistry (that all life relies on a similar set of reduction/ oxidation (redox) reactions) allowed bacteria to become easily manipulated model systems for the study of many cellular processes, eventually leading to today’s discipline of Molecular Biology

  7. Today: Bacteria have become workhorses of molecular biology for tasks such as: DNA Engineering Protein production Genetics Cell Signaling Synthetic Biology

  8. A Brief Review of Basic Chemistry (Chapter 3) Fundamental Particles: Element: Isotope: Bonding Interactions (Types)

  9. Isotopic Labeling in Photosynthesis

  10. Hydrogen Bonding Van der Waals Forces Hydrophobic Forces pH scale and Buffers Biomolecules