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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

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  1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • General Requirements • Eye & Face Protection • Respiratory Protection • Head, Hand & Foot • Protection • Hearing Protection • Other Questions & Answers

  2. Subpart I - Personal Protective Equip(OSHA 29 CFR 1910.132-140) • Types of PPE: • Hard hats • Goggles • Face Shields • Steel-toed Shoes • Respirators • Aprons • Gloves CFR is the Code of Federal Regulations 1910 is Part 1910, Occupational Safety & Health Standards for General Industry .132 is the Section on Personal Protective Equipment

  3. Other Types of PPE Personal protective equipment can also include clothing... … and accessories that put a barrier against workplace hazards.

  4. Selecting the Proper PPE For A Particular Job Should Include: • An in-depth evaluation of the equipment needed to protect employees against workplace hazards • Use of this information by management to set standard procedures for proper use of PPE • Development of employee training programs in the use and limitations of PPE • Procedures for the maintenance of PPE

  5. Personal protective equipment should NOT • be used as a substitute for the use of: • engineering, • work practice, and • administrative control • of a process to ensure safety.

  6. Wearing PPE doesn’t eliminate the hazard… If equipment fails exposure will occur. Equipment must be properly fitted and maintained in a clean and serviceable condition to reduce the possibility of failure.

  7. Employers and employees must understand the equipment’s purpose … and its limitations. Equipment must not be altered or removed even though it may be uncomfortable. It may simply not fit properly.

  8. PPE - General Requirements (1910.132) • Employers must ensure that PPE is: • provided, • used, and • maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary to prevent injury. • The body must be protected from hazards caused by absorption, inhalation or physical contact.

  9. PPE - General Requirements (1910.132) Many hazards can threaten the torso: Heat Splashes (from hot metals & liquids) Impacts Cuts Acids Radiation A variety of protective clothing is available: Vests, Jackets, Aprons, Coveralls and Full Body Suits.

  10. PPE - General Requirements (1910.132) • Employers must assure employee-owned equipment is adequate, maintained and sanitized • PPE must be of safe design and construction for the work performed • Employers will do a hazard assessment of the workplace and determine types of PPE needed for the job • Employers must certify in writing that a workplace hazard assessment was performed

  11. PPE - General Requirements (1910.132) • Defective or damaged PPE shall not be used • Employees who use PPE must be trained to know: • what types of PPE are necessary, • when it must be used, • how it is to be worn, • what its limitations are, and • how to properly care for, maintain, and dispose of it. (And know how long it can be used.)

  12. PPE - General Requirements (1910.132) • Employers are required to certify in writing that employees have received PPE training - and that employees understand the training • Each written certification shall contain: -- Name of employee trained -- Date(s) of training -- Subject trained

  13. PPE - General Requirements (1910.132) • PPE retraining is required when: • Changes in the workplace make previous training obsolete • Changes in the types of PPE to be used make previous training obsolete • Employees do not understand the training • Employees do not retain the training • Once again, written certification is required

  14. Eye & Face Protection (1910.133) Required where there is reasonable probability of preventing injury when such equipment is used. • Must be provided by employers • Must also be worn by supervisors, management, • visitors, etc. • Must be a type of protection suitable for the • work to be performed • Protectors must be marked to distinctly identify • the manufacturer

  15. Eye & Face Protection (1910.133) Protectors must meet the following minimum requirements: • Provide adequate protection against a particular hazard • Be reasonably comfortable when worn under • the designated conditions • Fit snugly without interfering with movement or • vision of the wearer • Be durable • Be capable of being disinfected • Be easy to clean - and kept clean • Be in good repair

  16. Eye & Face Protection (1910.133) Equipment shall be used with filter lenses that have a shade number appropriate for the work being performed (to protect against light radiation injuries).

  17. OSHA and the National Society to Prevent Blindness recommend emergency eyewash stations be placed in all hazardous locations. First-aid instructions should be posted close to potential danger spots (and delay can result in lasting eye damage).

  18. Eye & Face Protection- Selection • Persons wearing corrective • eyewear must wear face shields, • goggles or spectacles of one of • the following types: • Spectacles with protective lenses • providing optical correction • Goggles worn over corrective • spectacles without disturbing • the adjustment of the spectacles • Goggles that incorporate corrective • lenses mounted behind the • protective lenses

  19. Eye & Face Protection - Selection • Eyewear limitations & • precautions specified by • the manufacturer should • be: • -- strictly observed • -- communicated to the • user

  20. Eye & Face Protection • The fitting of goggles & safety spectacles should be done by a person skilled in the procedure. • Lenses of eye protectors must be kept clean. • Daily inspection and cleaning of eye protectors is recommended. • Pitted lenses reduce vision and should be replaced. • Headbands should be checked for elasticity and replaced if worn-out or torn. • Goggles & spectacles should be kept in a case when not worn.

  21. Employees who are assigned personal protective equipment for extended periods of time should keep that equipment cleaned and disinfected regularly. PPE that has been previously used should be disinfected before it is issued to another employee.

  22. Respiratory Protection - 1910.134 OSHA standards require employers to establish and maintain a respiratory protective program whenever respirators are necessary to protect the health of employees. • Three classes of respiratory protective devices: • Air-purifying • Atmosphere- or air-supplying • Combination air-purifying & air-supplying

  23. Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices • Clean contaminated atmosphere • Use chemical filters to remove specific gases • and vapors before they are inhaled • Use is limited to those environments where the • air contaminant level is within specified • limits of the filter (device) • Do not protect against oxygen deficiency (the • atmosphere where the percentage of • oxygen by volume is less than 19.5% • oxygen)

  24. Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices • Types include: • Mechanical-filter cartridge • Chemical-cartridge • Combination mechanical-filter/ • chemical-filter cartridge • Gas masks • Powered air-purifying respirators

  25. Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices Filter/cartridges provide some protection from: Airborne particulates Dust Mist Metal fumes Smoke Low concentrations of gases & vapors

  26. Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices GAS MASKS • provide respiratory protection against certain gases, • vapors and particulate matter • designed solely to remove specific contaminants • have restricted usage • must be used with sufficient oxygen to support life • may be used for escape only (from atmospheres that • are immediately dangerous to life or health) but • never for entry into such environments • are color-coded to specify use

  27. Class 1 - Air-Purifying Devices POWERED AIR-PURIFYING RESPIRATORS • protect against particulates, gases and vapors or • particulates AND gases AND vapors (all of these) • use filters, chemical cartridge, both, or a canister • uses a powered source to blow air across the air-cleaning • element (supplying purified air to the respirator)

  28. Class 2 - Atmosphere- or Air-Supplying Devices • Provide atmosphere independent of • ambient air • Three groups: • Supplied-air respirators • Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) • Combination SCBA & supplied-air respirators

  29. Class 3 - Combination Air-Purifying & Atmosphere-Supplying Devices • Provides protection if air • supply fails. • Available in continuous-flow or pressure-demand flow • Most often used with high-efficiency filter as the • air purifying element • Use in the filtering mode is allowed for escape only • These respirators recommended for asbestos work

  30. Respiratory Protection - 1910.134 • Standard operating procedures must be written for the selection, use and care of respirators • Respirators must be selected based on the hazards to which the worker is exposed • The individual issuing the respirator must be trained to insure the proper respirator is issued • To select the correct respirator, many factors must be considered: type of hazard, location, employee’s health, work activity, & respirator characteristics, capabilities and limitations

  31. Respiratory Protection - 1910.134 • The user must be trained in selection, use and maintenance of the respirator • Every respirator user shall receive instructions and demonstrations - with practice - in wearing, adjusting and fitting the respirator properly • Respirators will be cleaned and disinfected regularly (each day, or more often, if necessary) • Respirators will be stored in a “convenient, clean, and sanitary location” (to assure it functions properly when used)

  32. Respiratory Protection - 1910.134 • Routinely inspect respirators during cleaning and replace worn and/or deteriorated parts • Respirators for emergency uses shall be thoroughly inspected at least once a month and after each use • Work area surveillance to determine the degree of employee exposure or stress will be performed • The respirator program will be regularly inspected and evaluated for effectiveness

  33. Respiratory Protection - 1910.134 • Approved or accepted respirators shall be used when they are available • Respirators are approved as a whole unit with specific components • OSHA recognizes a respirator as approved if it has been jointly approved by: -- NIOSH -- Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA)

  34. Respiratory Protection - 1910.134 • Finally: • Employees will not be assigned to tasks requiring respirators unless they are physically able to perform the work and use the equipment • A physician shall determine the employee’s health and physical conditions pertinent to wearing respirators (Medical status will be reviewed periodically)

  35. Head Protection - 1910.135 Head injuries are caused by falling or flying objects, or by bumping the head Head Protection - protective hats - must do 2 things: -- Resist penetration -- Absorb the shock of a blow Protective hats are also used to protect against electrical shock.

  36. Head Protection - 1910.135 Types and classes: Type 1 - Helmets, full brim, not less than 1 and 1/4 inches wide Type 2 - Helmets, no brim, with a peak extending forward from the crown Class A - General Service, limited voltage protection

  37. Head Protection - 1910.135 Types and classes: Class B - Utility Service, high- voltage helmets Class C - Special Service, no- voltage protection Firefighters must have head protection with ear flaps & chin strap meeting 1910.156(e)(5)

  38. Class A Helmets Intended to protect against impact hazards. Used in: Mining Construction Shipbuilding Tunneling Lumbering and Manufacturing

  39. Class B Helmets Protect the wearer’s head from impact and penetration by falling or flying objects and from high-voltage shock and burn. Used extensively by electrical workers.

  40. Class C Helmets Designed for lightweight comfort & impact protection. Usually made from aluminum and offers no dielectric protection. Used in: Construction Manufacturing Oil fields Refineries Chemical plants

  41. Head Protection - 1910.135 • Materials used in helmets should be • -- Water-resistant • -- Slow burning • Each helmet consists of a shell and suspension • Ventilation is provided by a space between the • headband and shell

  42. Head Protection - 1910.135 • Helmets should come with instructions explaining • the proper method of adjusting and replacing • the suspension and headband • The manufacturer’s name, ANSI designation, and • class type should be inside the helmet’s shell • The shell should be one-piece, seamless, and designed • to resist the impact of falling material • Headband/sweatband material must not irritate skin • All components should be visually inspected daily (for • dents, cracks, penetration, etc.)

  43. Hand Protection - 1910.138 Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when employee’s hands are exposed to hazards - such as: Skin absorption of harmful substances Severe cuts or lacerations Severe abrasions Punctures Chemical burns Thermal burns Harmful temperature extremes

  44. Employers need to determine what hand protection their employees need. • How? Study work • activities to determine: • Dexterity required • Duration, • Frequency & • Degree of exposure • to hazards • and • Physical stresses applied • Also, know the performance characteristics of gloves to a • specific hazard

  45. Hand Protection - 1910.138 • Before purchasing gloves, employers should request • documentation from the manufacturer that gloves • meet appropriate test standards for the anticipated • hazard • (Example: Chemical hazard, determine toxic • properties of the chemical and the ability • of the chemical to pass through the glove • Protective devices should be selected to fit the job • Employees should know the limitations of the glove- • type they use

  46. Gloves should be the RIGHT TYPE for the job you are doing RIGHT FIT - not too loose, not too tight & allow for quick removal IN GOOD CONDITION (always check for cracks, holes, good flexibility and grip. Keep gloves clean and in good condition.)

  47. Foot Protection - 1910.136 Foot guards, safety shoes, boots or leggings protect from: -- Falling or rolling objects -- Sharp objects -- Molten metal -- Hot surfaces and -- Wet, slippery surfaces Safety shoes should be sturdy and have an impact-resistant toe.

  48. Foot Protection - 1910.136 • Leggings protect the lower leg and feet from molten metal • or welding sparks • Heat-resistant soled shoes protect against hot surfaces • Foot guards (Aluminum alloy, fiberglass, or galvanized steel) • can be worn over work shoes, BUT may catch on • something and cause workers to trip • In some shoes, metal insoles protect against puncture wounds • Safety shoes and boots come in a variety of styles and materials

  49. The SAFETY SHOE has protective features you need to do your job safely: Ankle Snug (to prevent sparks from getting inside shoe) Instep Protection (Made of Aluminum, Steel, Fiber or Plastic) Steel Toe Insulation (against heat or cold, waterproof & chemical-resistant) Special Materials (Soles made of either leather, rubber, cord or wood) Puncture Protection (With spring steel in sole)

  50. Foot Protection - 1910.136 • Safety footwear is classified by ability to meet • minimum requirements for compression & • impact tests. • Protective footwear purchased prior to July 5, 1994 • must comply with ANSI Z41.1-1967, USA • Standard for Men’s Safety-Toe Footwear • Protective footwear purchased after July 5, 1994 • must comply with ANSI Z41-1991, American • National Standard for Personal Protection- • Protective Footwear