OBJECTIVES • Highlight OSHA PPE Standards (Subpart I) • Occupational Noise Exposure • Respiratory Protection • Written PPE Program Elements • PPE Selection and Limitations • Training Tips • Complete a Hazard Assessment
What percentage of disabling work-related injuries will involve the head, eyes, hands or feet? • A. 10% • B. 25% • C. 5%
Why Must Employers Provide PPE? • OSHA requires certain PPE based on the hazards employees are exposed to. • OSHA also requires training for employees in the proper selection, use, and maintenance of PPE.
Protecting Employees from Workplace Hazards • OSHA regulations require employers to protect their employees from workplace hazards such as machines, work procedures, and hazardous substances that can cause injury. • Employers must institute all feasible engineering and work practice controls to eliminate and reduce hazards before using PPE to protect against hazards.
Engineering Controls If . . . You can physically change the machine or work environment to prevent employee exposure to the potential hazard, Then . . . You have eliminated the hazard with an engineering control.
Engineering Controls Examples… • Initial design specifications • Ventilation • Substitution with less harmful material • Enclosure of process • Isolation of process • Change of process
Work Practice Controls If . . . You can remove your employees from exposure to the potential hazard by changing the way they do their jobs, Then . . . You have eliminated the hazard with a work practice control.
Work Practice Controls Examples . . . • Job Rotation of Workers • Wet Methods • Personal Hygiene • Housekeeping and Maintenance
Establishing a PPE Program • A written PPE program sets out procedures for selecting, providing and using PPE as part of an employer’s routine operation. • The first essential step is to assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of PPE. • Once the proper PPE has been selected, the employer must provide training to each employee who is required to use PPE
PPE Assessment 1910.132 (d) • Assess the nature and degree of the workplace hazards. • Select PPE and require use. • Communicate selection decisions. • PPE should properly fit employees.
Written Certification • Documentation must include: • workplace identification • person conducting the certification • date(s) of hazard assessment • document shall be identified as a certificate of hazard assessment
Training • Apply to all employees that wear PPE • Conditions when PPE is required • Selection criteria • How to properly wear PPE • Limitations of PPE • Proper care, maintenance and useful life of PPE • Demonstrate that they understand the training
Training – Cont’d • Re-train when changes in workplace occurs • Re-train when there are changes in the type of PPE • Re-train when the employee has inadequacies in knowledge and use of PPE • Certification of training: • name of employee • date of training
Examples of PPE • Eye - safety glasses, goggles • Face - face shields • Head - hard hats • Feet - safety shoes • Hands and arms – gloves • Bodies – vests • Hearing - earplugs, earmuffs
True or False? • Wearing PPE, even if improperly is better than not wearing it at all.
Limitations of PPE • First use engineering controls and workplace controls then, use PPE • The protection is only as good as the PPE selected; PPE must be appropriate for job task and hazard • PPE may interfere with other PPE or work operations • PPE must be properly worn • PPE must be maintained and stored properly • PPE must be inspected
Causes of Eye Injuries • Dust and other flying particles, such as metal shavings or wool fibers • Molten metal that might splash • Acids and other caustic liquid chemicals that might splash • Blood and other potentially infectious body fluids that might splash, spray, or splatter • Intense light such as that created by welding and lasers
Criteria for Selecting Eye Protection • Must protect against specific hazard(s) encountered by employees • Must be comfortable to wear • Must not restrict vision or movement • Must be durable and easy to clean and disinfect
Criteria for Selecting Eye Protection • Must not interfere with the function of other required PPE • Must meet the requirements of ANSI Z87.1-1989 for devices purchased after July 5, 1994, and ANSI Z87.1-1968 for devices purchased before that date
Eye Protection for Employees with Eyeglasses • Eyeglasses designed for ordinary wear do not provide the required protection against workplace hazards. • Proper choices include: • Prescription spectacles with side shields and protective lenses meeting requirements of ANSI Z87.1 that also correct the employee’s vision
Eye Protection for Employees with Eyeglasses Proper choices include: • Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind protective lenses • Goggles that can fit comfortably over corrective eyeglasses without disturbing their alignment
Eye Protection • Eye protection comes in different types: • Goggles are designed for solid or liquid hazards that are airborne and in a quantity that there is a greater likelihood of contact with or near the eye. • Safety eyeglasses with protective side shields are designed for eye protection when the hazard is more casual by nature and the hazard(s) is of low quantity and likelihood.
Eye Protection • Eyes may need protection from hazards other than those that include a physical contact with the eye. For example, UV light can cause permanent damage to vision
Eye/Face Protection • For more severe hazards, full face protection is needed: • Heavy grinding and heavy spraying/splashing. • The full face shield should not only protect the eyes, but the entire facial area as well. • The face shield affords extra protection against hazards involving temperature extremes or hazardous chemicals. • Due to the wide opening on the sides and bottom of the face shield, protective eyewear must be worn along with the face shield.
Question Can more than one employee wear the same set of protective eyewear?
Question Are you required to disinfect the eyewear between uses by different employees?
Everyone who has suffered an eye injury: A. Thought it would never happen to them. B. Would wear eye protection if they had it to do over again.
Safety Spectacles • Made with metal/plastic safety frames • Most workplace operations require side shields • Used for moderate impact from particles produced by such jobs as carpentry, woodworking, grinding, and scaling • What are tips for proper care?
Goggles • Protect eyes, eye sockets, and the facial area immediately surrounding the eyes from impact, dust, and splashes • Some goggles fit over corrective lenses • What are tips for proper care?
Face Shields • Protect face from nuisance dusts and potential splashes or sprays of hazardous liquids • Does not protect employees from impact hazards • What are tips for proper care?
Welding Shields • Protect eyes from burns caused by infrared or intense radiant light, and protect face and eyes from flying sparks, metal spatter, and slag chips produced during welding, brazing, soldering, and cutting. • What are tips for proper care?
Laser Safety Goggles • Provide a range of protection against the intense concentrations of light produced by lasers. • What are tips for proper care?
Hazard Assessment • In a machine shop, a milling operation produces large quantities of metal chips that fly all over the surrounding work areas. How should the owner best protect the workers?
Causes of Head Injuries • Falling objects from above • Bumping the head against fixed objects, such as exposed pipes or beams • Contact with exposed electrical conductors
Head Protection • Hard hats are necessary to protect workers against falling objects and overhead hazards in general. • Some hard hats are designed to protect only against bumps (low overhead hazards), while others afford protection against falling objects. • Hard hats should be designed to reduce electrical shock when there is a potential for contact with anything electrical conductors.
Head Protection • Hard hats must conform with the requirements of ANSI Z89.1-1986. Check the label on the hat for compliance with this standard. • What are tips for proper care?
Types of Head Protection • Which class of hard hat types will protect you from • electric shock as well as falling objects? • Class A • B. Class B • C. Class C • D. Class A and B
Types of Head Protection Class A Helmets For impact, penetration, and electrical protection from low-voltage conductors (tested to 2,200 volts). Class B Helmets For impact, penetration, and electrical protection from high-voltage conductors (tested to 20,000 volts). Class C Helmets For impact and penetration hazards hazards only. Usually made of aluminum, which conducts electricity, and should not be worn around electrical hazards.
Causes of Foot Injuries • Heavy objects such as barrels or tools that might roll onto or fall on employees’ feet • Sharp objects such as nails or spikes that might pierce the soles or uppers of ordinary shoes • Molten metal that might splash on feet • Hot or wet surfaces • Slippery surfaces
Foot ProtectionCriteria for Selection • Selection depends upon specific workplace hazards identified and the specific parts of the feet exposed to potential injury • Safety footwear must meet minimum compression and impact performance standards and testing requirements established by ANSI • Protective footwear must comply with ANSI Z41-1991 if purchased after July 5, 1994) or ANSI Z41-1967 (if purchased before this date)
Foot Protection • Proper footwear can afford a level of protection for the feet and toes: • Steel-toed boots or shoes protect toes against the crushing hazard of falling objects, such involved with pipe moving or heavy material handling • Rubber boots protect the feet against chemical hazards. For chemical hazards, check with your MSDS. • Footwear should also be selected based on protection from the walking/working surface: • Sturdy, puncture-resistant soles for sharp object hazards
True or False? • Leather shoes or boots offer good protection against spills of caustic chemicals.
Safety Shoes • Have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles • Some have metal insoles to protect against puncture wounds • May be designed to be electrically conductive • What are tips for proper care?
Metatarsal Guards • An integral part of shoes or strapped to the outside of them to protect the instep area from impact and compression. • What are tips for proper care?