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Teaching Methods, Encouraging Interaction, and Asking Questions

Teaching Methods, Encouraging Interaction, and Asking Questions

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Teaching Methods, Encouraging Interaction, and Asking Questions

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  1. Teaching Methods, Encouraging Interaction, and Asking Questions Regina Frey, Director Washington University Teaching Center Eads Hall 105 Phone: 314-935-6810 Fax: 314-935-7917 http://artsci.wustl.edu/~teachcen Washington University Teaching Center

  2. Outline • Teaching methods/strategies • What makes an effective discussion class • Techniques for encouraging participation • Types of questions • Learning hierarchy Washington University Teaching Center

  3. Teaching Strategies/Methods • Many teaching methods can be grouped into 4 general categories • Lecture • Discussion • Group work - Active learning, Guided inquiry • Individual learning • Not one superior teaching method • Teaching strategies are NOT exclusive of one another; use a combination Washington University Teaching Center

  4. What makes an Effective Discussion Class • Planning and preparation of the class are important. • Define objectives for each session and a plan to obtain those objectives. • Have a number of carefully crafted questions to ensure that the discussion class moves forward and that the main points are brought forth. • Wrap-up at the end to summarize the important points that were discussed during the session. • The instructor needs to create a comfortable and non-threatening environment. • The instructor must show respect for all questions and comments. • The instructor should do a summation at critical points in the session. Washington University Teaching Center

  5. Techniques for Encouraging Participation • Ask appropriate questions – see subsequent slides • Wait for student responses • Redirect questions to other students • Place the emphasis on student ideas • Avoid interrupting student answers • Use positive reinforcement • Use students’ names Washington University Teaching Center

  6. Techniques for Encouraging Participation • Repeat student responses to summarize or clarify ideas • Pick up on comments or suggestions that were not discussed • Use nonverbal cues to encourage participation • Could assign students to solve the problems at the board and lead the discussion • Use small groups to solve problems • Allow students to think nonlinearly about the problem - brainstorm Washington University Teaching Center

  7. Types of Questions • Managerial (20% of all questions asked by instructors) • Deal with classroom operations • Does anyone have any questions about the assignment? • Rhetorical • Used to emphasize a point or reinforce a statement • ‘Can anyone look at our reduced standing in the world today and say, "Let's have four more years of this"?’ (Ronald Reagan, 1980 Republican National  Convention Acceptance Address) • Closed (60% of all questions asked by instructors) • Used to check retention or to focus thinking on a particular point • What is the limit definition of the derivative? • Open (20% of all questions asked by instructors) • Used to promote discussion or student interaction • Given the following data points, how might we best fit them? Washington University Teaching Center

  8. Types of Questions to Encourage Participation • Probing questions • Clarifying – used when a student’s comment is unclear or vague • Could you elaborate on that point? • Increasing critical awareness – used to explore the student’s thought process • What are your assumptions? • Refocusing – encourages the student to see that concept from another perspective • Let’s analyze that answer. • Prompting – used to help refine a student’s statement or thoughts • Redirecting (to another student) – used to encourage student-student discussion • Divergent questions – no right or wrong answer; encourages exploration of ideas • What are some ways to modify the social security system to handle the baby-boomer generation? • Higher-order questions – based on Bloom’s taxonomy Washington University Teaching Center

  9. Asking Questions Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy Washington University Teaching Center

  10. For more teaching tips, visit our website! http://artsci.wustl.edu/~teachcen Click on Teaching Assistants Washington University Teaching Center