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Health Promotion & Ethics

Health Promotion & Ethics

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Health Promotion & Ethics

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  1. Health Promotion & Ethics Sara Dudley Access to Nursing s.dudley@halesowen.ac.uk

  2. Todays lesson we will… • Consider how to analyse roles & responsibilities of professionals involved in health promotion • Define the term empowerment • Look different approaches to decision making in health promotion

  3. Approaching the assessment • PowerPoint – minimum 2 slides per bullet point • For level 3: Analyse & Evaluate • Reference & explanation of referred material

  4. Recap – Roles & Responsibilities • List 3 roles & responsibilities of health promoters. • Level 3 assessment – analysis. Why are the roles important and what are the difficulties faced? Discuss in pairs & make notes.

  5. Health Promotion (HP) roles and responsibilities (Walsh et al 2001) • Develop expertise in strategies for support, advice and guidance (HP). • Develop and implement specific programmes for HP i.e. smoking cessation/ relapse support. • Implement change and empower change processes for individual/groups. • Maintain up to date knowledge and high quality service within health promotion. • Evaluate all actions taken in health promotion activity: have the programmes achieved their outcomes. • Maintain ethical decision making processes.

  6. Health promotion and approaches review • HP starts within the primary care sector and now nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists are heavily involved in secondary care. • Current practice is to aim for a holistic and client centred approach to HP. • Empowerment of clients/patients is also central. • Ned to consider individuals health beliefs, lifestyle, genetics, family, society when planning any HP activity. What does empowerment mean?

  7. Self-empowerment: depends on: • Environment • Level of individual competency • Sense of belief in control (caution) • Emotional state • Support measures and change • Assessment of individual need and empowering strategies

  8. Models of health promotion: historical • Theory of reasoned action (AjzenFishbein’s 1980) • Health belief model ( Becker 1984) • Model of intervention (Beattie 1991) • Empowerment model (Tones 1996)

  9. Diagnostic decision making • Problem focused and involves making initial diagnosis of problem • May include medical tests and re-tests as well • Used to decide on goals and action plans to be implemented • Develop strategy based on diagnosis • It still needs to be based on the individual as well as common practice in HP

  10. Therapeutic Decision making • Decision on how to proceed with treatment and holistic approaches • Involves holistic assessment as well • HP: if involves treatment need to balance patients expectations with efficacy of advice and treatment or HP programmes • Other impacts on decision making: costs, compliance, partnership, balance risk and benefit.

  11. Ethical decisions? • Involvements of patients in healthcare and HP decisions involves many complex ethical decisions. • Those in HP roles need to consider ethical aspects of decisions made and how passive or active the client is in those decisions. • Define then terms overleaf and how by respecting them we are being ethical in decision making. • Ethically we have a duty of care to ensure clients have full information and are active participants.

  12. Using your PC access define the terms below and link to HP • AUTONOMY • PATERNALISM • BENEFICENCE AND NON – MALEFICENCE • JUSTICE • HOMEWORK IF NOT IN CLASS ACTIVITY

  13. Bibliography/ References • NS503 Bennett C, Perry J, Lawrence Z (2009) Promoting health in primary care. Nursing Standard. 23, 47, 48-56. Date of acceptance: April 2 2009. • Walsh et al (2001) Nurse Practitioners. Clinical Skills and Professional Issues. BUTTERWORTH HEINEMANN. • Walsh, M, Stephens & Chaloner, R (2005) Health and Social Care AS Collins, Endorsed by Edexcel