Subpart F Fire Protection and Prevention
Major Topics • The Fire Triangle • Classes of Fire • Types of Extinguishers • Steps for Using Extinguishers • NFPA 704 System • Fire Dangers to Humans • Sources of Fire
Topics con’t • Fire Protection Programs/Plans • Fire Alarm Systems • Portable Fire Extinguishers • Fire Prevention Strategies • Open Yard Storage • Indoor Storage • Flammable & Combustible Liquids • Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas)
The Fire Triangle All 3 elements are required to start and sustain a fire
Classes of Fire • A --- solid materials such as wool, plastic, paper, and clothing • B --- flammable liquids and gases • C --- Electrical • D --- Combustible, easily oxidized metals (aluminum, magnesium, and titanium)
Types of Extinguishers& Associated Ratings • Class A (Water) – will put out fires in ordinary combustibles (wood & trash). The numerical rating for this class refers to the amount of water the extinguisher holds and the amount of fire it will extinguish • Class B (Carbon Dioxide –may have “ice” forming around the dispensing horn) – should be used on flammable liquids (grease, gasoline, oil). The numerical rating states the approximate number of square feet of a flammable liquid fire expected to be extinguished
Types con’t • Class C (Carbon Dioxide) – suitable to use on electrically energized fires. This does not have a numerical rating. The “C” indicates that the extinguishing agent is non-conductive. • Class D – use on flammable metals and are often specific for the type metal in question. These don’t have ratings and are not given a multi-purpose rating to use on other types of fires
Types con’t • Multi-Class ratings (Dry Chemical—sodium or potassium bicarbonate )– such a label indicates that the extinguisher can be used on different types of fires • Purple K – (Dry Chemical) common applications are military facilities, oil refineries, service stations • Type K – (Wet Chemical) used in commercial kitchen settings
Extinguisher & Labeling Appearance Source: Terry Branch, USM Fire Safety Inspector, 2003
Steps for using extinguishers • Remember the word “PASS” • P = pull pin • A = aim at base of fire • S = squeeze the trigger • S = sweep back and forth until fire extinguished
NFPA 704 System • Quickly identifies hazards present when things burn • The 4-colored diamond (blue, red, yellow, and white) is used to refer to specific categories of hazards.
NFPA 704 System NFPA 704 System Ratings: Red = flammability Blue = health Yellow = reactivity White = special information * Note: Range is 0 to 4; 0 = no hazard & 4 = most severe Source: Terry Branch, USM Fire Safety Inspector, 2003 See Fig 8-4 on page 209 for additional information about ratings
Fire Danger to Humans Source: R.Bergeron, GP Fire Brigade Info Manual, 2003
Sources of Fire • Poor Housekeeping • Power tools, portable generators & heaters in the close proximity of where flammable or combustible materials are stored • Smoking near flammables or combustibles • Defective electrical equipment • Mother Nature – lightning strikes
Fire Protection Programs1926.150 • Employers responsibility to develop such a program • Program includes: • Firefighting equipment • Should be easy to locate • Inspected and maintained in operating order • Fire Brigade • Trained and equipped
Fire Alarm Devices • The employer must establish an alarm system (telephone system, siren) so that employees on the site and local fire department can be alerted for an emergency • The alarm code and reporting instructions must be posted in an noticeable location- by telephones & employee entrances
Portable Extinguishers • Each 3,000 square feet of protected building area must have an extinguishers with a minimum rating of 2A (substitutions for the 2A: a 55-gal open drum of water w/ 2 pails substitute; a ½” garden hose , 100 ft. long, with a discharge min. of 5 gals/minute) • Travel distance must not exceed 100 feet to the nearest extinguisher
Portable Extinguishers • 1 or more rated 2A or higher must be located on each floor • An extinguisher rated 10B should be within 50 ft. of more than 5 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids • See Table F-1 on page 147 of 1926 CFR’s
Fire Prevention1926.151 • Ignition Hazards • Electrical equipment and wiring need to comply with Subpart K • Exhausts from internal combustion engines should not contact combustible materials (6” min.) • SMOKING should not be allowed in areas where fire hazards are present. Signs must be posted “No Smoking or Open Flame”
Open Yard Storage • Combustible materials should be piled no higher than 20 feet and no closer than 10 from a building. • Driveways around & between materials shall be at least 15 feet wide, clean (unobstructed), and growth of weeds and grass should be controlled.
Indoor Storage • Storage should not block a “Means of Egress” • Materials should be stored, handled and piled according to their fire characteristics • Non-compatible materials must be separated by a 1-hour rated fire resistant barrier • 36” must be maintained between the top of material and automatic sprinkler system
Flammable & Combustible Liquids1926.152 • ONLY approved containers and portable tanks must be used • Do not store in areas used for exists or stairways • No more than 25 gallons can be stored in a room outside of an approved storage cabinet – for definition see 29 CFR 1926.152 (pg 146) • No more than 60 gals of flammable or 120 gals of combustible liquid should be stored in 1 cabinet. No more than 3 cabinets can be in one area
Storage Outside Buildings • Storage of containers (< 60 gals each) must not exceed 1,100 gallons in any one pile. • Space between piles needs to be at least 5 ft. • Piles/storage areas must not be within 20 feet of a building • Areas should be graded to divert spills away from any structures
Portable Extinguishes Needed • Storage rooms w/ 60 or more gals need a 20-B or better extinguisher located within 10 ft. from door • Outside storage of flammable liquid requires 20-B extinguisher more than 25’ & less than 75’ away • Extinguisher w/ 20-B:C units must be on every vehicle transporting or dispensing flammable or combustible liquids.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas1926.153 • LP-Gas must be in approved containers and have approved accessories • LP- Gas may NOT be stored within buildings • If stored outside of buildings, depending on the amount, it must be located a specific distance away from buildings (see Table F-3 on page 239 of CFR) • All storage locations must have a minimum of a 20-B:C portable fire extinguisher
Temporary Heating Devices1926.154 • All temporary heating devices must have adequate ventilation • Such devices must maintain minimum clearances as seen in Table F-4 of 29 CFR 1926.154 (page 156) • Solid fuel salamanders are prohibited in buildings and on scaffolds
References Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1926, Subtitle B - Regulations Relating to Labor, Chapter XVII - Occupational Safety and Health Administration. CCH (2008) with Amendments as of January 2008 Goetsch, D.L. (2003) Construction Safety and Health. Pearson Education Inc. Prentice Hall.