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H A R B O R

H A R B O R

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H A R B O R

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  1. H A R B O R

  2. Harbor  kapal dapat masuk dan berlindung dari angin & gelombang • Port  harbor dengan fasilitas untuk docking, cargo handling & storage, dan transfer of passenger • Marina  shallow draft harbor terutama untuk kapal-kapal kecil untuk rekreasi

  3. HARBOR ENGINEERING Protective structures waterways docks } loading cargo discharging repair

  4. HARBOR artificial natural seminatural dredging breakwater HARBOR military commercial refuge municipal Privately owned

  5. Karakter Penting untuk Harbor (commercial) } Easy access Good anchorage safe During any condition of weather and state of tide

  6. Size of a harbor: • Penggunaan tugs • Jumlah dan ukuran kapal • Existing site conditions

  7. 750 ft 1000 ft 500 ft channel 600 ft piers 400 ft 1500 ft Small Artificial Harbor

  8. Space for docks Usual minimum harbor area Free turning 2 length of the largest ship Radius ≥ Turning basin Limited turning Minimum diameter 20% length of the largest ship >

  9. Turning circle 200 ft 200 ft 800 ft 400 ft 1000 ft Small boat basin 2250 ft 1800 ft Medium-sized artificial harbor with full-sized turning basin

  10. Breakwaters Location & extent Size & Direction of maximum waves Configuration of the shoreline Size of harbor to be protected

  11. Tujuan : membuat harbor menjadi tenang Untuk comfortable breathing:wave height < 2 ft sebaiknyawind speed < 10 – 15 mi / h Note : angin & arus sering lebih mengganggu daripada waves

  12. Ship enters Ship leaves Two entrance harbor

  13. Not feasible or economical to construct a dock Offshore mooring or Offshore anchorage area • Ships carrying explosives or dangerous cargo • Quarantine inspection • To await docking space • To await favorable weather conditions

  14. width Small harbors 300 ft Medium harbors 400 – 500 ft Large harbors 500 – 1000 ft Be careful with ebb & flood tide (current)!!! To reduce wave height function Harbor entrance location On the lee side Effects on vertical surface Increased wave heights scour reflection

  15. NOTE: • >> arus dari ebb & flood harus dicegah dari melebihi 4 ft/s, karena akan mengakibatkan gangguan navigasi dan scour • >> untuk mencegah scour pada dinding vertikal: • Wave-deflecting walls • Buat “beach” (wave-absorbing beach) • Buat “hollow structure” • Wave traps

  16. CHANNEL DEPTH Main criteria :sufficient depth to permit navigation at lowest low water when ships are fullt-loaded Faktor lain: # surge of the ship (about one half the wave height) # squat when in motion # 1 m (2 – 4 ft) clearance under the keel # type of the bottom (soft mud / sand / hard rock) # draft of the largest ship (eg: supertankers  deadweight tonnage = 300.000 tons; draft > 80 ft) # tides : - artificial tidal working of ports - natural tidal working of ports