review for the unit test n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation


143 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST The Enlightenment American Revolution French Revolution and Napoleon Latin American Revolutions Unifications of Italy and Germany

  2. The two eras known as the Renaissance and the Enlightenment are similar in that they both led to people doing two things: • (1) Question the world around them (2) try to improve society

  3. During the Scientific Revolution, scholars applied logic and reason; this inspired the Enlightenment thinkers to also use logic and reason as they came up with new ideas about economics and government

  4. Political Ideas of the Enlightenment Baron de Montesquieu felt that too much power in the hands of one person always leads to tyranny; Rousseau agreed with this idea of too much power Montesquieu believed in separation of powers: dividing power among three branches of government

  5. Political Ideas of the Enlightenment The Swiss philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed in individual freedom Rousseau believed that people are naturally good, but too much power corrupts them

  6. Political Ideas of the Enlightenment John Locke said that the purpose of government was to protect citizens’ natural rights Locke believed that people are born with natural rights: rights to life, liberty, and property

  7. Political Ideas of the Enlightenment Locke believed that a government’s power comes from “consent of the governed” (approval of the people) • The English Bill of Rights (1689) • The king cannot tax or overturn Parliament’s laws • Protected freedom of speech • The army cannot be used as a police force • No excessive bail He argued that kings could be overthrown if they violated peoples’ rights

  8. Political Ideas of the Enlightenment Voltaire argued for certain rights: freedom of speech and religion; he criticized intolerance, prejudice, and oppression Voltaire once said:“I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”

  9. English philosophe Thomas Hobbes believed that humans are naturally cruel, selfish, and hungry for power Because he believed people needed to be protected from themselves, Hobbes supported rule by absolute monarchs (like Louis XIV); he argued that only kings with absolute power could maintain order in society Hobbes would disagree with the political ideas of Locke and Montesquieu

  10. To collect the new ideas of the Enlightenment and make them accessible, Denis Diderot created the first encyclopedia

  11. Capitalism is an economic model based on private ownership of property and the goal is to make profits “Laissez-faire” (“hands off”) is the idea that the economy thrives when there is minimal government involvement in the economy and business

  12. Impact of the Enlightenment: Kings Some powerful monarchs known as enlightened despots listened to new ideas and tried to improve the lives of their citizens

  13. The policies of the enlightened despots were influenced by the writings of Enlightenment thinkers (such as Voltaire, Rousseau)

  14. Enlightened despots improved the lives of their citizens: they favored religious tolerance, tax reform, reduced government spending, and legal rights

  15. Salons were discussion parties held by Enlightenment thinkers in Europe; they discussed new ideas in culture, government, and economics

  16. Impact of the Enlightenment: Music Music composers created new, elegant styles of music known as Classical Franz Joseph Haydn Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Beethoven

  17. The storming of the Bastille prison in 1789 represented the beginning of the French Revolution

  18. The French Revolution was started by the financial crisis in France, the unfair taxes on the Third Estate, the spread of Enlightenment ideas, and inspired by the success of the American Revolution

  19. The French and Indian War (1754-1763) England won the French and Indian War; France gave England all French lands east of the Mississippi River... …but the war left England with massive debts

  20. To pay off war debts, Britain created a series of new taxes (such as the Stamp Act) for the American colonists The colonists were upset that the Parliament in England would pass laws and taxes without the colonists’ approval

  21. Their slogan became: “No taxation without representation”, which meant that colonists believed that they should be able to vote on taxes and laws that affected them

  22. The Declaration of Independence used ideas from the Enlightenment (especially John Locke) to explain why Americans were declaring independence The Declaration suggested that the government should protect the rights of its citizens

  23. Like America’s Declaration of Independence, France’s Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen also stated that the government should protect the rights of its citizens

  24. France’s unequal social structure: the Three Estates The clergy (priests) of the Roman Catholic Church made up the First Estate They owned 10% of land in France but paid little in taxes to the government

  25. The Second Estate was made up of rich nobles They owned 20% of French land but were exempt from paying taxes

  26. The Third Estate made up 97% of the population and was mostly made up of extremely poor peasants This group paid 50% of their income in taxes

  27. The members of the Third Estate, the French commoners, hated having no say in the government and having to pay all the taxes This cartoon shows the poor Third Estate carrying the burden of the First and Second Estates

  28. During a meeting of the Estates-General (France’s government), the First and Second Estates voted to increase taxes on the Third Estate; King Louis XVI approved of the vote, which enraged the Third Estate

  29. The American Revolution and French Revolution were important events in world history Both revolutions created new democratic governments based on the Enlightenment ideas of individual liberty

  30. In 1793, King Louis XVI was arrested, convicted of treason, and executed by guillotine

  31. In 1793, radical Maximilien Robespierre slowly gained control of the National Convention, France’s new government after the death of the king

  32. When King Louis XVI was executed during the French Revolution, many European nations attacked France to keep revolutionary ideas from spreading

  33. From 1793 to 1794, any French citizens who were accused of being disloyal to the new republic were executed Robespierre executed 30,000 “traitors” during an era known as the Reign of Terror (until he, too, was executed)

  34. In 1799, a French military general named Napoleon Bonaparte led a coup d'état and seized power in France Similar to Robespierre, Napoleon took advantage of the chaos of the French Revolution to increase his personal power

  35. Napoleon made a series of reforms to improve the government, economy, and lives for French citizens To fix the French economy, he introduced a fair tax system and created a Bank of France to regulate the money supply

  36. In order rule France more effectively, Napoleoncreated a comprehensive set of laws called the Napoleonic Code This law code provided order, freedom of religion, and eliminated privileges by estates

  37. In 1812, Napoleon made his greatest mistake and invaded Russia

  38. Russia’s severe winters and the Russians’ “scorched earth” policy devastated the French army and forced Napoleon to retreat

  39. The era after the fall of Napoleon was a conflict among conservative, liberal, and radical forces CONSERVATIVES were usually wealthy land owners and nobles; they typically supported traditional monarchies LIBERALS were usually from the middle class; they supported Enlightenment ideas like limited monarchies and protecting citizens’ liberty RADICALS were usually from the lower classes; they supported extending democracy to all citizens

  40. After the fall of Napoleon in 1815, European leaders met at the Congress of Vienna to restore a balance of power inEurope

  41. The Congress of Vienna was attended by conservatives from Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain, and France and was led by Austrian minister Klemons von Metternich Metternich and other conservatives wanted to restore powerful monarchies in Europe, disliked democracy, and feared the ideas of the French Revolution

  42. In the class system of Latin America, rich and powerful White Europeans called “Peninsulares” were at the top of society

  43. Peninsulares were at the top of society in Latin America

  44. In 1791, Haitian slaves rose in revolt against their French rulers; Toussaint L’Ouverturebecame the leader of the slave uprising and helped free all the slaves by 1801

  45. From 1811 to 1824, Venezuelan creole Simon Bolivar led an army of revolutionaries in the independence movement against Spain

  46. Argentinean creole San Martín led the independence movement in southern South America

  47. Enlightenment ideas spread from Europe to South America, which led to creoles fighting for independence from Spain and other European rulers

  48. In Mexico, a poor but well educated Catholic priest named Miguel Hidalgo used Enlightenment ideals to call for a revolution against Spain

  49. What is NATIONALISM? • Nationalism is loyalty and devotion to a nation of people • It is a sense of national identity exalting one nation above all others • It can be defined as pride in one’s nation, and it can also be defined as the desire of an ethnic group to have its own country

  50. ITALY and GERMANY: TWO DIVIDED NATIONS As of the early 1800s, the German and Italian people were DIVIDED into numerous small states. Germany and Italy would not become fully unified until 1871 GERMAN STATES ITALIAN STATES