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Standardization of IV Goal: All subjects experience the IV in the same way. PowerPoint Presentation
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Standardization of IV Goal: All subjects experience the IV in the same way.

Standardization of IV Goal: All subjects experience the IV in the same way.

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Standardization of IV Goal: All subjects experience the IV in the same way.

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  1. Standardization of IV Goal: All subjects experience the IV in the same way. Procedural standardization: Standardize IV as given by E Flexibility in IV presentation: Standardize IV as experienced by S Problems with flexibility? Eina kleina “knock knock” music

  2. Standardization: Procedural and Psychological Stimulus Event  This is event we can standardize Stimulus Perception  This is event we ultimately want to standardize, but can’t directly control Response This is event intended to reflect only intended stimulus, and not any unintended stimulus.

  3. Standardization: Procedural and Psychological Stimulus Perception  Stimulus Event  Response

  4. Pilot Testing of IV Purpose: ID problems before experiment begins 1. Power of manipulation 2. Clarity: Alternative interpretations? 3. Presentation a. Believable? b. Production value? 4. Artifacts 5. Opportunity to bolster

  5. Methods of Piloting 1. Interview subjects a. subs are great info source b. Highly motivated to help c. Probe after IV, NOT at end of study (WHY?) d. Problems with interviewing? 2. Test against objective criterion a. Stress IV – bio measures b. Use experts: Feedback task, professional tutors

  6. Pilot Testing Using Objective Criteria Prediction: Distress will lead urbanites, but not rural folk, to disclose personal feelings. Conceptual IV: Distress Empirical Realization of IV: Disturbing movie clip (e.g., Titanic sinks) Pilot Test Goal: Is movie upsetting? Post-Expt. Interviews: Limited value; if prediction is true, rural folk might not provide reliable info. Objective Criteria: Non-verbal reactions (HR, GSR)

  7. Internal Analysis Purpose: To find out why experiment didn't work To understand why experiment did work Tools: a. Manipulation Checks b. Post hoc data analyses Limits to conclusions from internal analyses

  8. Subliminal Priming: Special Class of IV Purpose: Short cut to psyche; direct path into black box * Get past conscious editor * Activate otherwise inaccessible mental processes Nature: Exist between “instruction” and “event” manipulations. Examples: * “Mommy and I are one”: Silverstein  lower psych. symptoms Improve learning * Happy/sad faces: Winkielman  Ratings of Koolaid  Consumption of Koolaid

  9. Dependent Variables Class 09

  10. Dependent Variables: Conceptual vs. Experimental Conceptual Experimental Hitting X X Aggression X Health Status Blood Pressure X GPA X

  11. How Sad Am I? Subjects see a tragically sad movie How sad are you? __ Not at all __ Somewhat ___ A lot . How much did you want to cry? __ Not at all __ Somewhat ___ A lot How much do you need to talk about this? __ Not at all __ Somewhat ___ A lot VERSUS Observe walking speed after seeing sad movie.

  12. What to Consider when Selecting Dependent Variables What behavior best represents conceptual DV? DV should capture richness and power of response to IV DV should be reliable and non-obvious DV should be as easy to use and economical as possible Subs. should take DV seriously DV should be ethical

  13. Centrality of Experimental DV to Conceptual DV Expt’l DV Follow boring instructions Follow embarrassing instructions Follow instructions that hurt another against that person’s will Yeah, but... Lots of expts. are boring Sometimes psych is interested in personal, hidden stuff Holy Moly!!! Conceptual DV Obedience

  14. Classes of DV Measures Verbal Measures (surveys, interviews) Behavioral Overt behavior Behavioroid Physiological

  15. Advantages of Verbal Measures Easy to use Face validity: apparent direct access to thoughts, feelings Provide multiple opportunities to respond to IV, where as behavioral is often single-shot Can provide for more sensitive, subtle measures.

  16. Affirmative Action Measure 1. Do you favor Affirmative Action? ___ YES ___ NO Problems with this measure? Degree of favor? Favor for all groups? Favor all ways of implementing?

  17. Scale Value THURSTONE SCALE Statement 0.0 1 Affirmative action grossly violates the Bill of Rights. 0.5 2 Affirmative action tends to create more harm than good. 1.0 3 Affirmative action distracts people from real, underlying problems of social inequity 1.5 4 Affirmative action is nice idea, but not the best solution. 2.0 5 Ed. reform will do more good than affirmative action. 2.5 6 Affirmative action can be justified in some instances. 3.0 7 Affirmative action may help remedy hiring inequity in key businesses and regions. 3.5 8 Affirmative action is the way to correct hiring inequities. 4.0 9 Affirmative action should be national policy. 4.5 10 Affirmative action is crucial for a fair and just society. Subject A: Agrees with 2, 3, & 7 ( 1.5). Mainly anti AA, but sees it can do some good. Subject B: Agrees with 3, 5, & 6 (1.8). Mainly pro AA, but favors other social remedies.

  18. Ranked Order Presented Order Statement A 2 Affirmative action is justified throughout society, due to history of discrimination. B 3 Affirmative action is justified, but only in industries where patterns of discrimination are indicated. C 1 Affirmative action is justified only in specific work places in which discrimination has been proven. D 4 Affirmative action is justified in only the most extreme cases. Guttman Scale

  19. Guttman Scale Scoring Agrees with item: Disagrees with item: A B C D A B C D Score 4 3 2 1 0 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

  20. PROBLEMS WITH GUTTMAN SCALE 1. Too labor intensive to create (90+ judges, etc.) 2. Too narrow in focus; effort to precisely determine why and how much people endorse becomes overly exclusive 3. Lack of sensitivity between same responses. 1. __ I believe Af. Act. is moral imperative 2. __ I believe Af. Act. is needed to move society forward. 3. __ I believe Af. Act. is good, but should end soon 4. __ I believe Af. Act. had done good, but it's time is up. Joe and Jody both endorse items 1-4. But for Joe, items 1 and 2 are of equal importance, for Jody 1 is of supreme importance. Guttman can't show this difference.

  21. Some-what against 3 Totally against 1 Mainly against 2 Neither for nor against 4 Some-what favor 5 Mainly favor 6 Totally favor 7 Likert Scales Rensis Likert What is your view on affirmative action?

  22. Some-what 3 Some-what 3 Some-what 3 Not at all 1 Not at all 1 Not at all 1 Very Little 2 Very Little 2 Very Little 2 Very Much 4 Very Much 4 Very Much 4 A Great Degree 5 A Great Degree 5 A Great Degree 5 To what degree do you favor affirmative action for Asians? To what degree do you favor affirmative action for African Americans? To what degree do you favor affirmative action for Latinos?

  23. Likert Scale Considerations • Label each choice option, or just the extremes? • How many choice-options? (i.e. 3, 5, 7, 9, 131?) • Unipolar or bipolar? • Two measures problem • Hiding in the middle

  24. Some-what against -1 Totally against -3 Mainly against -2 Neither for nor against 0 Some-what favor 1 Mainly favor 2 Totally favor 3 Bi-Modal Scales What is your view on gun control?

  25. Indentify Latent Constructs as Index of Attitude Affirmative Action Measure 1. Do you favor special hiring consideration for women? .55 2. Do you favor special hiring consideration for minorities? .46 3. Do you favor use of hiring quotas? .72 4. Do you favor employment of affirmative action officer? .56 5. Should affirmative action be written into the Constitution? .23 6. Are opponents of affirmative action bigots? .28 7. Would you not vote for someone opposed to affirmative action? .34

  26. Affirmative Action Measure 1. Do you favor special hiring consideration for women? 2. Do you favor special hiring consideration for minorities? 3. Do you favor use of hiring quotas? 4. Do you favor employment of affirmative action officer? 5. Do you favor special affirmative action training for managers? 6. Do you think there should be minimal hiring standards, regardless of background? 7. Do you think that the human resources department should provide special post-hiring services for women?

  27. Semantic Differential (abridged) EVALUATIVE DIMENSION Good Bad Beautiful Ugly Sweet Sour POTENCY DIMENSION Strong Weak Large Small Heavy Light ACTIVITY DIMENSION Active Passive Fast Slow Hot Cold

  28. Affirmative Action Is: (EVALUATIVE DIMENSION) Good | | | | | | | | | | | | Bad Beautiful | | | | | | | | | | | | Ugly Sweet | | | | | | | | | | | | Sour POTENCY DIMENSION Strong | | | | | | | | | | | | Weak Large | | | | | | | | | | | | Small Heavy | | | | | | | | | | | | Light ACTIVITY DIMENSION Active | | | | | | | | | | | | Passive Fast | | | | | | | | | | | | Slow Hot | | | | | | | | | | | | Cold

  29. Measure  Attitude  Behavior Support for Affirmative Action Survey  Degree values Affirmative Action  Votes for Affirmative Action laws. IMPLICIT MODEL OF ATTITUDE MEASURES

  30. Problems with Verbal Measures  Response Biases: 1. Social desirability 2. Sabotaging Affected by situations and contexts Salience problem: Ss know that they are being measured. a. High salience attn, but  bias b. Low salience attn but  accuracy Reactivity problem: IV = (IV + Measure) May require atypical depth of processing/introspection May assume that people know own inner states/inner processes more than they actually do.

  31. Moral Values Inventory Rettig & Pasamanick, 1959 Sample items to display inter-generational limitations of empirical realization TO WHAT DEGREE WOULD YOU CONDONE: Item 6:Girls smoking cigarettes Item 3: Buying bootleg liquor under prohibition law Item 39: Seeking amusement on Sunday instead of going to church.

  32. Behavioral Measures 1. Overt behavior   2. Behavioriod 3. Physiological Advantages of Behavioral Measures 1. More absorbing 2. Require less inference of rel. btwn IV and behavior, b/c measure IS behavior. 3. Tell a better story

  33. Types of Behavioral Measures Frequency Extent/Amount Speed Intensity Duration Preference Latency Social/Physical Distance Non-verbal Cues and Expressive Behaviors Unobtrusive Measures

  34. Behavioroid Measures Defined: Measures INTENT to commit the behavior, w/o actually measuring or inducing behavior. Used when actual behavior is too impractical, unethical, or otherwise inappropriate.

  35. Example of Behavioroid Measure Freedman and Fraser "Foot in the Door" Study JPSP, 1966 Behavioroid Measure: Willingness to have 2.5 hour intrusive survey of house conducted by 5 strangers. a. Asked to complete short questions, and asked: 52.8% b. Asked to complete short survey, but not asked: 33.3% c. Familiarized with questions: 27.8% d. Not previously contacted: 22.2%

  36. Physiological Measures Defined: Bodily states that reflect psychological states Blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance Examples: Advantages: Not under conscious control Display mediation Problems: Costly; Intimidating to subjects; Typically gross, rather than subtle; Require inference to conceptual DV

  37. Implied Behavior Overt Behavior Physical distance from disabled person Discomfort Re-selling price for chosen item vs. given item. Subjective importance due to perceived control. Degree of eye contact Affection Indirect Measures Measures that imply DV, without directly testing it.

  38. Aim for actual and behavioral, rather than anticipated and non-behavioral  Expt. DV should be close to conceptual DV.  DV should be as precise as possible Concluding Points Re. DVs 1. Which is the better feedback bias measure? • Feedback bias = anticipated feedback to minority v. White • Feedback bias = verbal comments to minority v. White confed. 2. Which is better measure of hostility to out-group? • Amount of shock delivered during “learning” task • Physical distance during interview 3. Which is better measure of health after disclosure? • Visit vs. did not visit MD • Number of MD visits