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Chapter 27: “Expansionism” but what we really mean is empire!

Chapter 27: “Expansionism” but what we really mean is empire!. Frankenstein’s Monster and the “curse” of empire (up to 1940). Colony. America. Frankenstein’s Monster and the “curse” of empire. Marines in charge of colonization (why?) Train guard Disarm citizens Build roads/infrastructure

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Chapter 27: “Expansionism” but what we really mean is empire!

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  1. Chapter 27: “Expansionism” but what we really mean is empire!

  2. Frankenstein’s Monster and the “curse” of empire (up to 1940) Colony America

  3. Frankenstein’s Monster and the “curse” of empire • Marines in charge of colonization (why?) • Train guard • Disarm citizens • Build roads/infrastructure • Leave • Guard takes power • Consolidates power dictator

  4. EMPIRES All the good ones are taken!

  5. America Refuses an Empire

  6. FROM COLONY TO CONTINENTAL POWER • American Revolution (1776) • Louisiana Purchase (1803) • War of 1812 (wanted part of Canada) • British Cession (1818) • Spanish Cession (1819) • Monroe Doctrine (1823) • Manifest Destiny • Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)\ • Texas Annexation (1845) • Oregon Territory (1846) • Mexican-American War (1848) • Gadsden Purchase (1853) Republic Empire?

  7. TERMS: • Gold Strikes • Increase in farm prices • Middle Class • Wilson Gorman Tariff • Jingoism • Yellow Journalism • Turner’s Thesis • Alfred Mahan • Josiah Strong • Mark Hanna

  8. Teller Amendment Roosevelt’s Corollary Bryan Anti-Imperialism Aquinaldo/ Philippines “The Butcher” Hawaii/Dole Liliuokalani Cleveland expansionism DeLome Letter Latin America Venezuela The “Great Rapproachment”

  9. “Dogs of War” The Maine Madrid Agreement Teddy Dewey and Manila Cuba Libré Rough Riders Bungled land war on both sides Paris Peace Treaty 2/6/1899 Anti-Imperialist League Foraker Act & P.R. Insular Cases

  10. By 1890 the reformist Populism is dead • Gave up before they got started by • backing the Democrat candidate (Bryan) • allowing southern whites to control blacks • ignoring the urban poor • Republicans outspent them 6 to 1 • focusing only on Silver.

  11. Mark Hanna elects McKinley • Populism dies out • Economy grows rapidly due to: • gold strikes in Canada and Alaska • war in Europe • Pro-business government • The “Bidness Cycle”

  12. Continent covered Frontier Closed Need for Export Market Social Darwinism applied to societies 4th largest nation, 3rd largest economy, 4th Strongest navy White Man’s Burden Alfred Thayer Mahan Jingoism Human Nature???? Missionaries Path To Empire?

  13. 1889: US Vs.. Germany over Samoa 1891: 11 Italians lynched in N.O. 1892: two US sailors killed in Chile 1893: US Vs. Canada over border islands 1894: GB Vs. Venez. Over Br. Guinea--threatens Monroe Doctrine Nationalism in Action

  14. 5 reasons to expand: 1. Commercial/Business Interests 2. Military/Strategic Interests 3. Social Darwinist Thinking 4. Religious/Missionary Interests 5. Closing the American Frontier

  15. 1. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908

  16. Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade:1870-1914

  17. Alfred Mahan(or Bond Villain?)Influence of Sea Power on History

  18. 2. Military/Strategic Interests

  19. Japan

  20. Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese View of Commodore Perry

  21. Treaty of Kanagawa: 1854

  22. Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908 A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports tolaborers entering the U.S. Japan recognized the U.S.right to exclude Japaneseimmigrants holding passportsissued by other countries. The U.S. government got theschool board of San Francisco to rescind their order tosegregate Asians in separateschools. 1908  Root-Takahira Agreement.- recognition of free trade in China

  23. 3. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’sBurden The Hierarchyof Race

  24. Make them like us!

  25. 4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionariesin China, 1905

  26. 5. Closing the American Frontier

  27. U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Fine thank You Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s

  28. 1870 Missionaries: Josiah Strong Coaling Station 1875: Commercial Reciprocity Treaty signed 1887: Pearl Harbor leased as naval station 1887: US troops help a Planter revolt led by Dole called the Bayonet Constitution when the Honolulu Rifles forced King Kalākaua to sign against his will. 1888: A plot by Princess Liliʻuokalani was exposed to overthrow King David Kalākaua in a military coup In 1889, a rebellion of Native Hawaiians attempted to replace the unpopular Bayonet constitution. The rebellion was crushed. 1st Overseas Expansion: Hawaii

  29. U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.

  30. Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!

  31. 1890: McKinley Tariff hurts Amer. Plantation owners • 1893: Queen Liliuokalani rejects Planters request for US annexation • 1893: Committee of Safety formed by European powers putting United States Gov’tMinister John L. Stevens in charge. Uses U.S.S Boston to put down another rebellion by Hawaiians. • Sanford Ballard Doleproclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.

  32. Hawaii – Not so Fine, Thank you • 1894 Wilson-Gorman even higher • 1894: Cleveland vetoes a bill to annex Hawaii after reading the Blount Report • 1897: Dingley Tariff even higher • 1898: Spanish American war, so what the … • 1898: Hawaii annexed

  33. To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898 DURING the Spanish-American War



  36. JINGOISM • Many Americans wanted a fight to: • competition between Hearst & Pulitzer • Weyler The Butcher • A CIVIL WAR for independence • Sell papers (Yellow Press)

  37. Prove to Europe we could • Expand territory • Increase trade • Roosevelt & Dewey (Boys and their Toys)

  38. Racism: • White Man’s burden: Missionaries want to protect the inferior “little brown brothers” (Lodge & Beveridge) • Jim Crow controls Southern Blacks

  39. New Frontiers • the West is settled • Indians are all on reservation by 1898 • w/o a frontier America will stagnate (Turner thesis)

  40. Latin America

  41. 1895 Revolt by peasants as the Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894 ends sugar export to US US sympathizes w/ rebels and worries about $50,000,000 capital and $100,000,000 in trade Spain sends in “Butcher Weyler” Cleveland rejects “warhawk Congress” Yellow Journalism: Olivetti Affair McKinley Pres.. Delome Letter Feb 9th, 1898: The Maine CUBA

  42. Pulitzer; No “prize” as a journalist

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