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Chapter 27: “Expansionism” but what we really mean is empire!. Frankenstein’s Monster and the “curse” of empire (up to 1940). Colony. America. Frankenstein’s Monster and the “curse” of empire. Marines in charge of colonization (why?) Train guard Disarm citizens Build roads/infrastructure
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Frankenstein’s Monster and the “curse” of empire (up to 1940) Colony America
Frankenstein’s Monster and the “curse” of empire • Marines in charge of colonization (why?) • Train guard • Disarm citizens • Build roads/infrastructure • Leave • Guard takes power • Consolidates power dictator
EMPIRES All the good ones are taken!
FROM COLONY TO CONTINENTAL POWER • American Revolution (1776) • Louisiana Purchase (1803) • War of 1812 (wanted part of Canada) • British Cession (1818) • Spanish Cession (1819) • Monroe Doctrine (1823) • Manifest Destiny • Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)\ • Texas Annexation (1845) • Oregon Territory (1846) • Mexican-American War (1848) • Gadsden Purchase (1853) Republic Empire?
TERMS: • Gold Strikes • Increase in farm prices • Middle Class • Wilson Gorman Tariff • Jingoism • Yellow Journalism • Turner’s Thesis • Alfred Mahan • Josiah Strong • Mark Hanna
Teller Amendment Roosevelt’s Corollary Bryan Anti-Imperialism Aquinaldo/ Philippines “The Butcher” Hawaii/Dole Liliuokalani Cleveland expansionism DeLome Letter Latin America Venezuela The “Great Rapproachment”
“Dogs of War” The Maine Madrid Agreement Teddy Dewey and Manila Cuba Libré Rough Riders Bungled land war on both sides Paris Peace Treaty 2/6/1899 Anti-Imperialist League Foraker Act & P.R. Insular Cases
By 1890 the reformist Populism is dead • Gave up before they got started by • backing the Democrat candidate (Bryan) • allowing southern whites to control blacks • ignoring the urban poor • Republicans outspent them 6 to 1 • focusing only on Silver.
Mark Hanna elects McKinley • Populism dies out • Economy grows rapidly due to: • gold strikes in Canada and Alaska • war in Europe • Pro-business government • The “Bidness Cycle”
Continent covered Frontier Closed Need for Export Market Social Darwinism applied to societies 4th largest nation, 3rd largest economy, 4th Strongest navy White Man’s Burden Alfred Thayer Mahan Jingoism Human Nature???? Missionaries Path To Empire?
1889: US Vs.. Germany over Samoa 1891: 11 Italians lynched in N.O. 1892: two US sailors killed in Chile 1893: US Vs. Canada over border islands 1894: GB Vs. Venez. Over Br. Guinea--threatens Monroe Doctrine Nationalism in Action
5 reasons to expand: 1. Commercial/Business Interests 2. Military/Strategic Interests 3. Social Darwinist Thinking 4. Religious/Missionary Interests 5. Closing the American Frontier
1. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade:1870-1914
Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908 A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports tolaborers entering the U.S. Japan recognized the U.S.right to exclude Japaneseimmigrants holding passportsissued by other countries. The U.S. government got theschool board of San Francisco to rescind their order tosegregate Asians in separateschools. 1908 Root-Takahira Agreement.- recognition of free trade in China
3. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’sBurden The Hierarchyof Race
4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionariesin China, 1905
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Fine thank You Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
1870 Missionaries: Josiah Strong Coaling Station 1875: Commercial Reciprocity Treaty signed 1887: Pearl Harbor leased as naval station 1887: US troops help a Planter revolt led by Dole called the Bayonet Constitution when the Honolulu Rifles forced King Kalākaua to sign against his will. 1888: A plot by Princess Liliʻuokalani was exposed to overthrow King David Kalākaua in a military coup In 1889, a rebellion of Native Hawaiians attempted to replace the unpopular Bayonet constitution. The rebellion was crushed. 1st Overseas Expansion: Hawaii
U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
1890: McKinley Tariff hurts Amer. Plantation owners • 1893: Queen Liliuokalani rejects Planters request for US annexation • 1893: Committee of Safety formed by European powers putting United States Gov’tMinister John L. Stevens in charge. Uses U.S.S Boston to put down another rebellion by Hawaiians. • Sanford Ballard Doleproclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
Hawaii – Not so Fine, Thank you • 1894 Wilson-Gorman even higher • 1894: Cleveland vetoes a bill to annex Hawaii after reading the Blount Report • 1897: Dingley Tariff even higher • 1898: Spanish American war, so what the … • 1898: Hawaii annexed
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898 DURING the Spanish-American War
JINGOISM, RACISM & THE NEED FOR NEW FRONTIERS LEADS T0----WAR!!!!! • WHO TO FIGHT? • ENGLAND (TOO POWERFUL) • FRANCE (BEEN THERE...) • SPAIN (WEAK, BUT BELLIGERENT)
JINGOISM • Many Americans wanted a fight to: • competition between Hearst & Pulitzer • Weyler The Butcher • A CIVIL WAR for independence • Sell papers (Yellow Press)
Prove to Europe we could • Expand territory • Increase trade • Roosevelt & Dewey (Boys and their Toys)
Racism: • White Man’s burden: Missionaries want to protect the inferior “little brown brothers” (Lodge & Beveridge) • Jim Crow controls Southern Blacks
New Frontiers • the West is settled • Indians are all on reservation by 1898 • w/o a frontier America will stagnate (Turner thesis)
1895 Revolt by peasants as the Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894 ends sugar export to US US sympathizes w/ rebels and worries about $50,000,000 capital and $100,000,000 in trade Spain sends in “Butcher Weyler” Cleveland rejects “warhawk Congress” Yellow Journalism: Olivetti Affair McKinley Pres.. Delome Letter Feb 9th, 1898: The Maine CUBA