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Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions

Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions

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Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions

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  1. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Steps in Making a Major Purchase • Household Goal • Recognition of Problem • Evaluation of Opportunity • Purchase Decision • Purchase Act • Postpurchase Evaluation

  2. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Major Purchase Decisions • Comparison shopping key in major purchase decisions • Process of comparing products, prices, and services offered by several stores to get the best values • Function of a limited budget • Major decision purchases include: new furniture, household appliances, personal computers, vacations

  3. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Benefits of a Step-by-Step Approach By following a deliberate approach to purchasing, consumers usually are able to extend the purchasing power of their funds Avoids the danger of impulse buying -(Buying on the spur of the moment with little or no consideration for other brands)

  4. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Other Benefits of a Step-by-Step Approach • Informed consumers better able to take advantage of sales and bargains • By planning purchases, able to pay for them in most convenient and least expensive way • By controlling expenditures, consumers less likely to buy something that does not fit into their budget

  5. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions Two Key Phases in Decision-making Purchase 1. Separating needs from wants • A need is something thought to be a necessity. Example: a new car • A want is something considered to be unnecessary. Example: a new Mercedes 2. Fitting a major expenditure into the budget

  6. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Fitting a Major Expenditure into Your Budget • Ask “Can I really afford it?” • New purchase can jeopardize a carefully planned budget • A new purchase which is financed can have future financial consequences • Ask “How am I going to pay for it?” • May require cutting back on monthly expenditures • May require reduction in contribution to savings each month

  7. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Consumer Fraud and Abuse Mail and telephone fraud -- rank among the highest number of complaints. Amount of money lost over $500 million yearly. Home and auto repairs -- presented need for major work when only minor work was required

  8. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Types of Fraud Deceptive advertising -- advertisements that are not completely ethical such as “fat-free” and “low-fat” in certain foods Deceptive sales practices and pricing -- Sales advertised carry only limited number of sale items which sell out quickly.

  9. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Sources of Consumer Assistance • Better Business Bureau • Consumers Union • Underwriters Laboratories • The Media • Selected Federal Agencies • State and Local Government Consumer Protection Services

  10. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Handling the Problems Associated With Purchases You may take direct action by contacting the company yourself 1. Decide what the problem is and what form of restitution you want. Do you want money back? A new model? The present model fixed? Have all documents available including sales receipts, warranties, etc.

  11. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Handling the Problems 2. Contact person who sold you the item. If this doesn’t resolve problem, complain to supervisor or manager. 3. If still unresolved, write letter to company. Send letter to consumer affairs department of company or CEO. Make sure your letter includes all necessary information.

  12. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Taking Third-Party Action • May involve contacting federal, state, or local consumer affairs offices • May involve contacting private organizations like Better Business Bureau

  13. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Last step: small-claims court • Handle disputes involving small amts. of money (< $1,000) • Only small fee is charged • After hearing both sides, court orders claim be settled in favor of one of the parties • No appeal is allowed

  14. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • The Transportation Decision • Car the third most important decision behind house, college education • First determine if you really need a car • Necessity of car function of where you live • Urban areas -- car less convenient, less efficient than public transportation • Rural and suburban areas -- isolation without car transportation

  15. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Costs Associated with Owning a Car Average cost of new car to own and operate is $0.46/ mile. Costs outlays include: • Financing the purchase • Car insurance payments • Periodic service and repairs • Registration and licensing fees • Depreciation • In 5 years, cars only worth 60% of original value

  16. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Purchasing an Automobile Issues to consider are: • Make and model of car • Options you needvs. want • New or used • Dealerships you wish to patronize

  17. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Make and Model of Car Most consumers want a company with excellent reputation for service and loyalty. Ask friends and family members who own models of cars you’re considering for their opinion of car’s performance and repair record. Some makes, models depreciate more significantly than others; therefore, the cost of ownership is higher for certain models

  18. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Make and Model of Car • Size consideration • Small-sized cars -- better gas mileage, easy to park, handle well • Medium-sized cars -- “family cars”, more powerful for automatic transmission and air, small enough for good gas mileage • Large-sized cars -- increased safety, comfort, seating and trunk capacity • Body Style -- Four-door models more popular with families with children

  19. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • New or Used Car? As new car prices climb, a used car is no longer a last resort in a car purchase. • Advantages Less expensive to purchase Tend to depreciate less • Disadvantages Sacrifice latest in comfort, performance, and safety features Not always certain the car has been maintained properly by the original owner

  20. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Used Car Purchases Generally, most popular used cars have following characteristics: 1 Have been driven between 15,000 and 25,000 miles 2Less than four years old 3 Models with established reputation for quality Before purchasing, have a trained mechanic inspect the car. (Pre-purchase Inspection)

  21. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Where To Buy a Used Car • Car Dealerships • May charge more, but generally provide a warranty and can service car • Private sales • Generally less expensive, but buyer must secure own financing and transfer of ownership papers

  22. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Buying a New Car Two key prices to consider when buying new car: 1. INVOICE PRICE -- the car’s actual cost to dealer 2. STICKER PRICE (suggested retail price) -- price of car, including options and transportation charges, shown on manufacturer’s sticker on car window

  23. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Negotiating the Price of a Car Smart negotiators work up from the invoice price rather than down from the sticker price. Magazines like Consumer Reports and some buying services give invoice and sticker prices for different cars. There is usually a small fee. Generally, paying between $300 and $500 over dealer invoice is a good deal for a well-stocked model.

  24. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Negotiating the Price of a Car • Extended service warranties • Fees for preparing paperwork (not negotiable) • Dealer “paks” including rust proofing, paint sealant, fabric protection (not worth the money you could save by doing on own)

  25. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Two types of Warranties A warranty is a promise by maker to pay cost of repairing or replacing defective item during specific period of time 1. “Bumper to bumper” -- covers everything except tires for specified period 2. “Power train warranty” -- covers only the engine and transmission for an additional period (usually two years) after bumper to bumper warranty expires

  26. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Financing the Car Purchase To determine maximum car loan allowed, determine how much you may increase your monthly installment debt (not > than 20% of take-home pay). Solve for present value of annuity (payment)

  27. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Sources of Financing • Banks • Credit unions • Offer most competitive rates for car loans • Often offer payroll deductions for monthly payments • Automobile manufacturer’s financing subsidiary • Convenience of financing where car is purchased • Rates competitive

  28. Chapter 7 Transportation and Major Consumer Decisions • Leasing In recent years has become increasingly more popular with new car shoppers • Nearly 25% of all new cars are leased, rather than purchased • Advantages • Little or no down payment • More car for the money • Lower monthly payments • Main disadvantage -- the lessee does not own the car at the end of the leasing period.