HUM 2461Study Guide SFC Spring 2014
What is Baroque? Period of artistic style. Exaggerated motion. Easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. 1600 and continuing throughout the 17th century, and into the early 18th century is identified today as Baroque painting.
Baroque Style – Church (2) This style was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church. Arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. New rhetorical and theatrical fashion. Express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state. Exploration of form: light/shadow and dramatic intensity.
Baroque Style (3) Baroqueart was meant to evoke emotion and passion instead of the calm rationality that had been prized during the Renaissance. As opposed to Renaissance art, which usually showed the moment before an event took place, Baroqueartists chose the most dramatic point, the moment when the action was occurring.
How many Spanish Viceroyalties were in Spanish America? New Spain (Mexico D.F. as the capital of North America) Peru (Lima as the capital of South America [Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia]) Nueva Granada (Central America, Venezuela, and Colombia) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay) New France (Canada, Quebec, Acadia/Cajuns [Louisiana]) Brazil
Where in Latin America, Baroque or “lo barraco” has better representation? • Viceroyalty of New Spain • Baroque in Mexico • Viceroyalty of Peru • Baroque in Peru
How is “lo barroco” in Mexico? In Mexico the Baroque period ushers in a burst of color with polychrome plasterwork, red volcanic stone mixed with white limestone, and colorfully glazed tile work (azulejos) and ceramic pottery. The effect is that of exaggerated extremes mixed with organic sensuality. During the 17th century we find mistilineal shapes (curves and straight forms), three-lobed arches in architecture, and even inverted pyramids for pilasters.
Lo Barroco in Mexico (2) Mexican baroque humanities demonstrate a profusion of adornment, complicated façades, abundant foliage, plaster darts, crossings, coiling, scrolls, and conical shapes mixed with traditional shapes. American Baroque developed as a style of stucco decoration. The term horror vacuiis well suited to the Mexican Baroque: Lorenzo Rodríguez (1704-1774), Mexico's greatest architect. He became the originator of the elaborate ultra-Baroque style known as Mexican Churrigueresque.
Who is the best artist in Mexico? Lorenzo Rodríguez (1704-1774), Mexico's greatest architect. He became the originator of the elaborate ultra-Baroque style known as Mexican Churrigueresque.
Lorenzo Rodríguez Stela H, COPAN
Main writers during “lo barroco” in Mexico. • In Mexican Baroque Literature, three figures stand out: Bernardo de Balbuena (1561-1627), Carlos Siguenza y Góngora(1645-1700), and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (1648-1695).
Main artists during “lo barroco” in Mexico. • In Mexican Baroque Painting, two figures stand out: Juan Correa(1646–1716) was a Mexican painter of mixed Moorish or African, Indian and Spanish heritage. • And Miguel Cabrera (1695-1768), during his lifetime, he was recognized as the greatest painter in all of New Spain (México).
Best sculpture of “lo barroco” in Mexico. In Mexican Baroque Sculpture and Painter, one figure stands out: José de Ibarra (1688–1756). He was a student of painter Juan Correa. Many of hispieces are preserved in Mexicanmuseums and the MetropolitanCathedralin Mexico City. He was one of the mostprolificpainters of hisday, producingmainlyreligiouspaintings for the cathedrals of Mexico.
How is divided “lo barroco” in Perú? • Architecture: • Andean Hybrid Baroque or Mestizo Style (mostly in the Andean cities) • Lo barroco in Cusco • Spanish Baroque (coast of Ecuador and Peru) • Painting • Cusco
How is European Baroque Style different to Renaissance? Baroqueart was meant to evoke emotion and passion instead of the calm rationality that had been prized during the Renaissance. As opposed to Renaissance art, which usually showed the moment before an event took place, Baroqueartists chose the most dramatic point, the moment when the action was occurring.
How is “lo barroco” in the architecture of the viceroyalty of Peru? • Andean Hybrid Baroque orMestizo Style (mostly outside of Lima) • Began in Arequipa in the 1660s. • The style represents the geographic location (local fauna and flora) • Horror vacui style • Main representant is the Church of the Company of Jesuits (Arequipa)
Main characteristic of the façade: is figurative Figurasparlantes--that emerge from scrolling vines that scholars have compared to centipede bodies. Creatures disgorge cactus flowers, pomegranates, tobacco-like leaves, cantutascrolls, and moustachioedmonster masks with vines emerging from their mouths. Just inside these serpentine cornucopias is an eight-link chain containingfour-and eight-petal rosettes and crowned with a shell.
The top of the façade “The lowest part of the panel frames a double-handled vase of scrolling flowers inhabited by four small songbirds. The relatively plain doorway has rosette voussoirs and a scrolling, corbel-like keystone, common throughout the southern Andes" (pp. 52-53).
How is “lo barroco” in Cusco? • We find layering and syncretism in the Peruvian humanities during this period. • Built on two levels, figuratively and architecturally: • Inca stone walls were used on the bottom. • On top Spanish style architecture. • The lower half, then, gives a sense of heaviness, darkness, and solidity. • Above the stone foundations one finds typical Spanish windows with ornamental wrought-iron bars, and on the roof curved red Spanish tiles.
How is “lo barroco” on the coast? Spanish Baroque (Lima) Sculptors and carvers imported from Spain (Andalusia). Finest wood carving on church choir and balconies.
How is ‘lo barroco’ in art? The main representant is Cuzco School of Art EscuelaCusqueña de Arte
Cuzco School of Art / EscuelaCuzqueña de Arte It was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition based in Cusco during the Colonial period, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. It is considered the first artistic center that systematically taught European artistic techniques in the Americas. The Cusqueña paintings were a form of religious art whose main purpose was didactic.
Cuzco School of Art / EscuelaCuzqueña de Arte Incas already had their universities and own artists during the Inca Empire. The Spanish, who aimed to convert the Incas to Catholicism, sent a group of religious artists to Cusco. These artists formed a school for Quechua people and mestizos, teaching them western style ways of drawing and oil painting. The designation "Cusqueña," however, is not limited to the city of Cusco or to indigenous artists, as Spanish creoles participated in the tradition as well.
Who were the main painters in Cuzco School of Art? • Diego QuispeTito • Created anonymously because of Pre-Columbian traditions that define art as communal. • Marcos Zapata • Luis Riaño
Characteristics of CuzqueñoArt School • Adapted their topics to depict their native flora and fauna as a backdrop in their works. • Use religious subjects from Catholic religion. • Predominance of red, yellow and earth colors. • They are also remarkable for their lavish use of gold leaf, especially with images of the Virgin Mary. • Warrior angels became a popular motif in Cusqueña paintings.
Virgin of Carmen Saving Souls in Purgatory,by • Diego QuispeTito
Christ calling St. Peter and St. Andrew, from a series of Signs of the Zodiac by Diego QuispeTito
What is Renaissance? • Age ofEnlightenmentorAge of Reason. • It’s the period of European history at the end of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world. • It’s a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries. • It’s the humanistic revival of classical forms such as art, architecture and music.
Characteristics of Renaissance • Growing split between secular and religious powers. • Knowledge began to be democratized. • Individuals began to assert their private right to seek and achieve personal glory and fame.
Characteristics ofCuzco School of Art Used bright colors and distorted (Mannerist style), dramatic images Predominance of red, yellow and earth colors. Remarkable for their lavish use of gold leaf, especially with images of the Virgin Mary. Warrior angels became a popular motif in Cusqueña paintings.
Characteristics of ‘lo barroco’ in literature • Extreme decoration • Subtle conceits (clever plays on words): language is “slippery ground” • Maximum culture (knowledge, all the reading of humanities) • Extreme respect to the authority • Pessimism • Metaphor “a sea of troubles” • Stark opposites (light//dark) • Veras and burlas
METAPHOR • A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in "a sea of troubles" or "All the world's a stage" (Shakespeare).
Inca Garcilaso de la Vega(16th century) Is he Medieval or Renaissance? He is Renaissance His original name was Gómez Suárez de Figueroa but his nickname was El Inca He was born in Cusco, 12 April 1539 and died in Spain, 23 April 1616 He was a Chronicler and writer
What is the Dilemma of incaGarcilaso? He was from two different worlds: He was born of Spanish aristocratic and royal Inca roots in Cusco, Peru. • He was the illegitimate son of Spanish captain and conquistador Sebastián Garcilaso de la Vega y Vargas (d. 1559). • And Garcilaso's mother was the Inca princess Palla ChimpuOcllo(Isabel Suárez ChimpuOcllo), descended from Inca nobility, daughter of Túpac Huallpa and granddaughter of the powerful Inca Tupac Yupanqui.
What was his position in the new world (Spain)? • First bilingual writer (Quechua & Spanish) • First educated indigenous, but he was “The Other” • Nobility did not help much in Spain. • Ambassador of the Inca Empire. • Need of teaching Spaniards about Inca culture throughout writing. • In spite of being a man, he did not have a position in the Spanish patriarchal society (just like women).
Why did he choose literature in stead of other artistic expression? • Because of his dilemma heritage from two powerful worlds: • Inca Empire • The new country Spain. • Because of his participation in one of the many revolts against the Crown in Cusco: • His father (Spanish captain and conquistador SebastiánGarcilaso de la Vega y Vargas) was dishonorable discharged by the Crown.
What did he write? • La Florida del Inca (Lisbón, 1605) • Comentariosreales de los Incas (Lisbón, 1609/1616) / The Royal Commentaries of the Incas (English translation, 1961)
Where and whenLa Florida del Inca was written? • In Lisbón, in1605 • What is it about? • It’s an account of Hernando de Soto's expedition and journey of Florida.
Where and whenComentariosreales de los Incas was written? • Lisbón, 1609/1616 • What is it about? • It’s a “relación” that informs about the Inca culture (it’s history, arts and architecture, and religion)
Why is Comentariosreales de los Incas important? • Because the book is arelación,a letter of appeal to the Council of the Indies to have his father’s name cleared and Garcialso’s petition granted. • It’s an exemplary history of the two sides of his family. • Comentariosreales de los Incas is divided in two parts: • 1st part tells the story of the Inca emperors from he claims descend on his mother’s side. Published 1609. • 2nd part narrates the history of the conquest of Perú by the Spaniards. Published 1616.
Why do we say that Comentariosreales de los Incasis “barroco”? • It’s “barroco” because he gives details account of names and dates that in the end it is the legal rhetoric that dismantles the other and predominate the Inca’s discourse.