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Sensor Network Routing

Sensor Network Routing

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Sensor Network Routing

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  1. Sensor Network Routing Romit Roy Choudhury and Pradeep Kyasanur (Some slides are based on Dr. Nitin Vaidya’s tutorial)

  2. A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks Elizabeth M Royer, Chai-Keong Toh

  3. Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Networks • Unreliable wireless medium • Mobile nodes • No central authority • Traffic patterns application specific • Energy constraints • More information in MANET Charter

  4. Example Ad Hoc Network S E F B C D A G H I Nodes have unique identifiers Routing problem – find path between S and D

  5. Classification of routing protocols • Table-driven (proactive) • Up-to-date routing information maintained • Routing overhead independent of route usage • Source-initiated (demand-driven / reactive) • Routes maintained only for routes in use • Explicit route discovery mechanism • Hybrid Protocols • Combination of proactive and reactive

  6. Classification (cont.) Ad Hoc Routing Protocols Reactive Hybrid Proactive Source-initiated on-demand Table driven Hybrid ZRP WRP OLSR DSDV CGSR DSR AODV TORA ABR SSR

  7. Table-driven Routing Protocols • Each node maintains a routing table • Contains routes to all nodes in the network • Changes to network topology is immediately propagated • Protocols differ in mechanisms used to propagate topology information

  8. Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) • Based on Bellman-Ford algorithm • Enhanced with sequence number to avoid loops • Fresher routes have higher sequence numbers • Optimizations added to reduce routing overheads – incremental data exchange, delayed exchange of updates

  9. DSDV Example Routing Table of Node A A B C D Route information is exchanged periodically

  10. Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) • Nodes organized into hierarchy of clusters. • Each node has a clusterhead, selected using an election. • Nodes send packet through clusterheads. • Clusterheads communicate amongst themselves using DSDV. • Two clusters are connected through a gateway node

  11. Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) • Maintains multiple tables • Distance, routing, link-cost, etc. • Link change messages exchanged only between neighbors • Loop freedom using novel algorithm • Uses predecessor hop information

  12. Other Table-Driven Protocols • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) – RFC 3626 • Optimization of link-state routing to wireless • Topology Dissemination Based on Reverse Path Forwarding (TBRPF) - RFC 3684 • Also based on link-state routing

  13. Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing • Create routes only when needed • Routes found using a “route discovery” process • Route maintenance procedure used to repair routes

  14. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) • Now RFC 3561, based on DSDV • Destination sequence numbers provide loop freedom • Source sends Route Request Packet (RREQ) when a route has to be found • Route Reply Packet (RREP) is sent back by destination • Route Error messages update routes

  15. Route Requests in AODV S E F B C D A G H I Represents a node that has received RREQ for D from S

  16. Route Requests in AODV Broadcast transmission S E F B C D A G H I Represents transmission of RREQ

  17. Route Requests in AODV S E F B C D A G H I Represents links on Reverse Path

  18. Reverse Path Setup in AODV S E F B C D A G H I • Node C receives RREQ from G and H, but does not forward • it again, because node C has already forwarded RREQ once

  19. Route Reply in AODV S E F B C D A G H I Represents links on path taken by RREP

  20. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) • Similar to AODV in route discovery • Full source-route is aggregated in RREQ, and sent back in RREP • Each data packet has full source route • Route table overhead only at source node • However, overhead with each data packet

  21. Route Requests in DSR S E F B C D A G H I Represents a node that has received RREQ for D from S

  22. Route Requests in DSR Broadcast transmission S E F B C D A G H I Represents transmission of RREQ

  23. Route Requests in DSR S E F B C D A G H I RREQ keeps a list of nodes on the path from the source

  24. Route Reply in DSR S E F B C D A G H I Represents links on path taken by RREP

  25. Associativity-Based Routing • Defines metric “Degree of Association Stability” • This metric used instead of shortest hop • Nodes with less mobility/better links have higher stability value • DSR-like protocol is used for routing

  26. Signal Stability Routing • Signal strength of links is used as metric • DSR-like routing is used • RREQ is forwarded only if packet is received over a link with good signal strength

  27. Other metrics • Expected Transmission Time (ETT) metric • Easier to compute, and more useful than signal strength • Weighted Cumulative Expected Transmission Time • Better for multi-radio, and asymmetric rate links

  28. Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm • Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) rooted at destination is used to route packets • Link Reversal algorithm used to update DAG (along with notion of “height”) • Algorithm is distributed and loop-free • Recent result - Link reversal takes O(n2) time and message complexity to stabilize

  29. TORA Example A B F C E G D DAG maintained to destination D

  30. TORA Example A B F C E G Link (G,D) broke D Node G has no outgoing links

  31. TORA Example A B F C E G Represents a link that was reversed recently D Now nodes E and F have no outgoing links

  32. TORA Example A B F C E G Represents a link that was reversed recently D Nodes E and F do not reverse links from node G Now node B has no outgoing links

  33. TORA Example A B F C E G Represents a link that was reversed recently D Now node A has no outgoing links

  34. TORA Example A B F C E G Represents a link that was reversed recently D Now all nodes (except destination D) have outgoing links

  35. TORA Example A B F C E G D DAG has been restored with only the destination as a sink

  36. Other routing protocols • Geographic Routing Protocols • Location Aided Routing (LAR) • Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM) • Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) • Hybrid Routing Protocols • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

  37. Discussion • Proactive routing protocols suitable for high traffic load, low mobility • On-demand routing protocols suitable for low traffic load and/or moderate mobility • With high mobility, flooding of data packets may be the only option

  38. Locating and Bypassing Routing Holes in Sensor Networks Qing Fang, Jie Gao and Leonidas J. Guibas

  39. GPSR • Location of the destination node is assumed to be known • Each node knows location of its neighbors • Each node forwards a packet to its neighbor closest to the destination • If routing holes are found, uses perimeter routing (right-hand rule)

  40. Routing Holes E C F B J HOLE D S A G I H

  41. Problem with GPSR Approach • Maintaining perimeter graph expensive, especially in sensor networks • Identifying holes (and boundary around holes) useful for routing around them • Also useful for path migration, information storage • Node where packets get stuck (due to a hole) define the boundary around holes

  42. J P Q H Definitions • Weak stuck node P – P is the closest node to node Q (among P’s neighbors), and Q is out of range of P • Q is called black node

  43. J P Q Black Region H Definitions • Strong stuck node P – P is closest node to point Q, and Q is out of range of P • Collection of Qs is called black region

  44. Proposed Algorithms • TENT rule – enables detection of strongly stuck nodes J P O H

  45. Proposed Algorithms • BOUNDHOLE- identifies the boundary of a hole • Start with a stuck node, and sweep counter-clockwise • Move from stuck node to stuck node till the originating node is reached, completing loop

  46. Discussion • Identifying “holes” useful for many applications • Hole identification assumes “circular” radio transmission pattern • Can a similar algorithm be designed using connectivity properties alone?