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Wireless Sensor Network (Ubiquitous Sensor Network)

Wireless Sensor Network (Ubiquitous Sensor Network)

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Wireless Sensor Network (Ubiquitous Sensor Network)

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  1. Wireless Sensor Network(Ubiquitous Sensor Network) 전자부품연구원 유비쿼터스 컴퓨팅 연구센터 네트워크 임베디드 시스템 팀 부산대학교 이완직 수정

  2. 목차 • 무선 센서 네트워크 개요 • IEEE 802.15.4 • H/W 구성 • Mote 예 • TinyOS

  3. Mainframe Minicomputer Workstation log (people per computer) PC Laptop PDA simple data storage /processing ??? Web-based interactive computing year Intelligent Computing Computing Paradigm CHIP 하드웨어는 지속적으로 소형화, 저가격화 될 것으로 예측됨 Pentium과는 다르게 성능이나 메모리 성능개선은 소형화, 저가격화 때문에 우선순위가 낮아질 것으로 예측됨 http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~culler/talks

  4. The next tier of the internet • 인터넷과 물리 정보의 통합 및 서비스 지원 인터넷 영역 물리 영역

  5. Wireless Sensor Network • 무선, 저전력소모, 저비용의 특성 • 서로 다른 기능을 가진 다수의 센서 노드들의 집합 • 각 센서 노드들은 다음과 같은 기능을 갖는다. • Communication, processing, storage capabilities Gateway Environmentalevents Internet

  6. Emerging Applications • Indoor Settings • 공장의 조건 기반 장비 유지보수 시스템 • 홈 오토메이션 (HAVC) • 환자/노약자 모니터링 • Outdoor environment: • 자연 서식지 감시 • 원격 생태계 감시 • 산불 탐지 • 재앙 발생 탐지 • 군사적 목적

  7. Wireless Sensor Network Benefits Accuracy of information View of an environment Fault tolerance Improve Collaboration among sensor nodes Remote access to data Self-Organizing Living conditions in buildings Online processing of obtained information Save Networking costs A large number of sensor nodes Time and Cost involved in deploying and configuring networks Energy use

  8. Key Requirement • Hardware • Robust radio technology • Low cost energy efficient processor • Flexible I/O for various sensors • Small size • Software • Small size code • Energy efficient • Capable of concurrency • Reusability • Robust, low-power, ad-hoc network

  9. Upper Layers Other LLC IEEE 802.2 LLC IEEE 802.15.4 MAC IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4 868/915 MHz 2400 MHz PHY PHY IEEE 802.15.4 • IEEE 802.15.4 Protocol Stack

  10. IEEE 802.15.4 PHY • 국제적인 제약이 없는 ISM 밴드 주파수 사용 • 868 MHz: 1 channel, 20 Kbps 915 MHz: 40 Kbps, 10 channel, • 2.4 GHz: 250 Kbps, 16 channel • IEEE 802.15.4 PHY 프레임 포맷

  11. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC • Star and peer-to-peer topologies • 64-bit IEEE 확장 주소나 16-bit 주소 사용 • 2가지 형태의 device가 존재함 • Full Function Device (FFD) • Reduced Function Device (RFD) • 간단한 프레임 구조 • 신뢰성 있는 데이터 전달 • Association/disassociation • AES-128 보안 매커니즘 제공 • CSMA-CA기반 채널 접근 • Beacon 기반의 슈퍼 프레임 구조 (선택사항) • GTS (Guaranteed Time Slot) 매커니즘

  12. IEEE 802.15.4 Devices • Full function device (FFD) • 어떤 형태의 토폴로지라도 사용 가능 • PAN coordinator 역할을 할 수 있음 • 다른 어떤 장치(device)와도 통신이 가능 • 프로토콜 집합이 완전히 구현되어 있음 • Reduced function devices (RFD) • Star 토폴로지나 peer-to-peer 토폴로지에서 end-device로만 사용 가능 • PAN coordinator 역할을 수행할 수 없음 • PAN coordinator를 통해 다른 노드와 통신함(Star) • 구현이 간단함 • 프로토콜 집합의 일부만 구현

  13. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Topology Clustered stars - for example, cluster nodes exist between rooms of a hotel and each room has a star network for control. Communications flow Full function device Reduced function device

  14. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Frame • Super Frame Structure

  15. MAC Frame Format • Address Info Field Format • Frame Control Format

  16. Small Network Embedded Systems http://www.jlhlabs.com

  17. Small Network Embedded Systems http://www.jlhlabs.com

  18. MOTE history IEEE 802.15.4 Industry Standard The Emergence of Networking Abstractions and Techniques in TinyOS, Philip Levis, Sam Madden, David Gay, Joe Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, Alec Woo, Eric Brewer and David Culler, Proceedings of the First USENIX/ACM Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 2004). http://www.tinyos.net/papers/tinyos-nsdi04.pdf

  19. MICA / MICA2 • UC. Berkeley, Crossbow • Commercialize mote and TinyOS • Supply 1-inch-diameter version of the sensors • universities, military and civil research facilities and businesses for avionics • Plan • Building sensors in earthquake zones • Discreet baby monitors • Communication : 916.5 MHz. RFrange up to 200 feet • Power consumption : max 110 mW • Mica, Mica2, Mica Sensor Bd. • OS : TinyOS

  20. MICAZ http://www.xbow.com

  21. MicaZ Certifed FCC and ARIB www.tinyos.net/http://www.tinyos.net/ttx-02-2005/culler-introduction.ppt

  22. MICAZ http://www.tinyos.net/ttx-02-2005/platforms/MICAz_xbow.ppt

  23. TELOS

  24. TELOS http://www.tinyos.net/ttx-02-2005/platforms/ttx-2005-telos.ppt

  25. Power Consumption of Platforms All values measured at room temperature (approximately 25oC) at 3V supply voltage Source: “Telos: Enabling Low Power Wireless Sensor Network Research”To appear, IPSN/SPOTS, April 2005

  26. iMOTE2 http://www.tinyos.net/ttx-02-2005/platforms/ttx05-imote2.ppt

  27. iMOTE2 http://www.tinyos.net/ttx-02-2005/platforms/ttx05-imote2.ppt

  28. iMOTE2 http://www.tinyos.net/ttx-02-2005/platforms/ttx05-imote2.ppt

  29. EYES • European research project (IST-2001-34734), 2002-2005 • Consortium • The Centre for Telematics and Information Technology (CTIT) - University of Twente, the Netherlands • Nedap N.V., the Netherlands • Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Telecomunicazioni (CNIT), Italy • Rome University “La Sapienza”, Italy • Technical University of Berlin, Germany • Infineon Technologies, Austria • Develop the architecture and the technology needed for building self-organizing and collaborative sensor networks using reconfigurable smart sensor nodes, which are self-aware, self-reconfigurable and autonomous • TI’s MSP430F149 • 16bit ultra low power CPU • 60KB Flash, 2KB RAM • 12bit ADC, 2 USARTs

  30. EYES http://www.tinyos.net/ttx-02-2005/platforms/

  31. Operating System @ UC Berkeley • BSD Unix • Open Source • Robust Unix which is for free • Many Developer groups world-wide • TCP / IP • Initially Implemented by UCB • at 80’s • Many PHD students developed Unix for commercial product • Bill Joy (Sun Microsystems) • They got a success at 90’s (Workstation, Network, Internet) • Internet Business success was from Server and Client Side • Many Easy Convenient Services • Unix is one of the key technologies among them • at late 90’s and early 00’s • UCB EECS many professors and students are focusing on TinyOS

  32. TinyOS • Developed at University of California in Berkeley (www.tinyos.net) • Professors David Culler & Kris Pister • David Culler  TinyOS & Intel Research Lab. @ Berkeley • Kris Pister  Dust networks (Smart Dust) • Key Engineer  Jason Hill, Joe Polastre, Matt Welsh, Phil Levis, Cory Sharp, etc. • Use more than 500 academic groups & industrial organizations • Rapid Development, Worldwide well-known OS • Open-source software development : BSD License • Simple operation system, Many sample applications • Programming language and model • Intel supports TinyOS • Many Engineers and Projects with UC Berkeley David E. culler

  33. Projects using TinyOS

  34. TinyOS 2.x (T2) http://www.tinyos.net/dist-2.0.0 This slide is from TTX3, see [8]

  35. Download Hit-rate This slide is from TTX3, see [8]

  36. TinyOS Alliance

  37. What is TinyOS • TinyOS is an open-source operating system designed for wireless embedded sensor networks. It features a component-based architecture which enables rapid innovation and implementation while minimizing code size as required by the severe memory constraints inherent in sensor networks. • TinyOS's component library includes network protocols, distributed services, sensor drivers, and data acquisition tools – all of which can be used as-is or be further refined for a custom application. • TinyOS's event-driven execution model enables fine-grained power management yet allows the scheduling flexibility made necessary by the unpredictable nature of wireless communication and physical world interfaces. • 무선 센서 네트워크에 적합한 운영체제 모델 / 개발 환경 • 어떠한 표준도 지원할 수 있는 가능성이 있음 • 예) Linux : Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, USB, IEEE 1394, etc.