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Practical Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) Part 2 PowerPoint Presentation
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Practical Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) Part 2

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Practical Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) Part 2

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Practical Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) Part 2

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  1. Practical Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) Part 2 Matthew Phillips PBIS Coordinator, Ingham ISD Winter 2014

  2. Goals for Part Two… By the end of the second day, participants will be able to: Complete a competing behavior pathway based on the summary statement/hypothesis Use the information from the competing behavior pathway to develop a function-based behavior support plan Understand the importance of having an intervention implementation plan Understand how to collect data to determine the impact of the intervention Understand the importance of collecting fidelity data for decision making

  3. Today’s Agenda Competing Behavior Summary Building an Effective Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) and Implementing Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) Data Collection & Decision Making

  4. 1.0 Brief Review from Previous Session

  5. If the finish line is an effective behavior support plan, you’ll need to DASH to get there! Define Ask See Hypothesize

  6. 2’s tell 1’s what the D and A stand for in D.A.S.H. 1’s tell 2’s what the S and H stand for in D.A.S.H. Your Turn

  7. Practical FBA Process…D.A.S.H Definebehavior in observable & measurable terms Ask about behavior by interviewing staff & student: Specify routines where & when behaviors occur Summarize where, when, & why behaviors occur See the behavior Observe the behavior during routines specified Observe to verify summary from interviews Hypothesize a final summary of where, when & why behaviors occur (Lohman & Borgmeier, 2010)

  8. Why Practical Functional Behavioral Assessment? “Since 1997, FBA has not been implemented widely in schools. Not due to lack of knowledge, but to practicality of use.” (Lohman & Borgmeier, 2010) “Challenges schools face today are not finding what works, but implementing what works.” (Fixsen, Naoom, Blasé, Fiedman, & Wallace, 2005)

  9. Why Practical FBA Materials? Lohman & Borgmeier (2010) demonstrated: School personnel can conduct “valid” FBAs for students with mild to moderate behavioral problems The utility and acceptability of practical FBA training methods to train school personnel in schools to conduct FBA The utility of the FACTS interview tool to guide FBAs, but direct observation is needed

  10. Pre/Post Training FBA Knowledge 99% inter-rater total agreement on 25% of tests Overall Pretest M = 39.50% (SD = 18.25%) Overall Posttest M = 92.55% (SD = 7.22%)

  11. Acceptability Ratings Agree N = 10 Student FACTS Teacher FACTS ABC Form Overall benefit Equipped me Will use again Time Reasonable Suggest to others Tools easy to use Confident it Informs Intervention

  12. FBA Procedural Adequacy An FBA Procedural Adequacy Checklist was used to rate each FBA on the following criteria: Interviews were conducted with a staff member who worked with the student during routines where problem behavior occurred Problem behavior was defined in observable and measureable terms A routine was prioritized for direct observation An antecedent event was defined as triggering the problem behavior Only one maintaining function of the problem behavior was identified 100% of the FBAs conducted met all of these criteria 100% Inter-rater Agreement

  13. Accuracy of Summary Statements from Practical FBA Process 9 out of 10 of the summary statements hypothesized by the FACTS interviews with teachers were verified by results of experimental functional analysis The one FACTS summary statement that was not verified by FA actually resulted in further clarification from direct observation

  14. 2.0 Competing Behavior Pathways & Building a Behavior Intervention Plan

  15. Team Development of Behavior Support Plan Developed based on information gained from a completed FBA summary Team includes people closely involved with the student Teacher, behavior specialist, parent, other staff

  16. “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors a person should perform instead of the problem behavior.” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p.71)

  17. Summary of Behavior A B C Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Hypothesis/Summary Statement from your Practical FBA

  18. The Competing Pathways Model Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequences Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Alternative Replacement Behavior Making problem behavior ineffective, inefficient, irrelevant

  19. Meet Jane Jane is a 2nd grade student Problem behaviors: Refusing to do work Throwing tantrums (whining, pounding her hands on her desk, and throwing papers on the floor) Behaviors occur most often in math class when she is given a math assignment After she throws a tantrum: She is sent to the back table where she talks with other students who have completed the assignment

  20. A Little More About Jane… Jane can complete assignments fairly quickly when she is held in from recess and has to do her own work Her problem behaviors are more likely after she has missed recess for that day

  21. The Competing Pathways Model for Jane Desired Behavior Complete Math Problem Maintaining Consequences Success! Peer recognition Setting Events No Recess Time Triggering Antecedents Given a math problem Problem Behavior Throws a tantrum Maintaining Consequences Sent to back table (Obtain peer attention) Alternative Replacement Behavior Raise hand; ask for peer break

  22. Using the “Eddie Example”, fill out the competing pathways form for Eddie Activity

  23. Maintaining Consequence Desired Alternative Success! Told “good job” Grades Do work successfully w/o complaints Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Reading curriculum that is at frustration level Asked to complete reading assignment Argues, threatens uses profanity Remove from class Avoid task Acceptable Alternative Ask for break, ask for help

  24. Behavior Support Planning:Changes to A  B  C (Antecedents) – Irrelevant – Can we change things so that whatever set off the problem behavior is no longer an issue? (Behavior) – Inefficient – Can we teach an alternative behavior that gets results more quickly or easily than the problem behavior did? (Consequence) – Ineffective – Can whatever was “rewarding” the problem behavior be discontinued or switched to reward appropriate behavior instead?

  25. Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequences The Competing Pathways Model Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Alternative Replacement Behavior Behavior Support Planning Setting Event Manipulations Neutralize / eliminate setting events

  26. What Are Setting Events? Events that happen outside of the immediate routine (at home or earlier in the day) that commonly make problem behavior more likely or worse. Something in the environment that “sets the stage” for problem behavior.

  27. What Are Setting Events? Setting events will vary greatly from individual to individual.  The list below contains examples of variables that might serve as setting events. Medications were changed Slept fewer or more hours than usual Irregular or unpredictable schedule/routine Chaotic or demanding environment Missing the school bus Was the target of verbal or physical aggression from a peer or sibling Missed meals

  28. Setting Event Strategies Build in strategies to: Diminish the effect of setting events Decrease the likelihood that problem behavior will occur Example: If a setting event is conflict at home before coming to school, a setting event manipulation could be to: Build in a morning check-in with an adult to build a positive relationship Schedule a fun activity with student before work task

  29. Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequences The Competing Pathways Model Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Alternative Replacement Behavior Behavior Support Planning Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Preventing problem behavior and prompting desired behavior Neutralize / eliminate setting events

  30. Antecedent Manipulations Preventing problem behavior and supporting desired behavior Preventing – Change triggers that set off the problem behavior to make the problem behavior irrelevant Supporting – Provide prompts and supports to set up and promote replacement or desired behavior

  31. Joe throws a tantrum when given a difficult math assignment. His behavior is maintained by avoiding difficult tasks. Which of the following are appropriate antecedent manipulations? • Give Joe an assignment at his instructional level so he can be more successful • Provide teaching prompts to scaffold instruction • Arrange for Joe to be sent to the Responsible Thinking Classroom Think Pair Share

  32. Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequences The Competing Pathways Model Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Alternative Replacement Behavior Behavior Support Planning Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Behavior Teaching Preventing problem behavior and prompting desired behavior Neutralize / eliminate setting events Teach alternative that is more efficient

  33. Teaching Behavior Teach replacement (i.e., alternative) behavior and desired behavior that gets results more quickly or easily to make the problem behavior inefficient Teach any academic or social skill deficits that the student may have

  34. Identifying the “Replacement”Behavior An appropriate replacement behavior: Serves the same function as the problem behavior Is as, or more efficient, than the problem behavior Is socially acceptable

  35. Example: Teaching Behavior Let’s teach Jane to raise her hand and ask for a break instead of throwing a tantrum to get a break By teaching Jane an easier, alternative behavior to get what she wants, we’re making the problem behavior inefficient Jane will need frequent practice, pre-corrections, and prompts to help her get in the habit of using the alternative behavior

  36. Teaching Behavior for Attention Seeking Teach the behavior to use instead of the problem behavior. Teach the student more appropriate ways to get adult or peer attention. Identify and teach specific examples of ways to ask for attention from adults or peers Raise hand and wait patiently for teacher to call on you Ask a peer what they did over the week-end versus teasing them to as an attempt to interact with them

  37. Leslie frequently disrupts instruction by blurting answers. Her behaviors are maintained by adult attention during work periods. Which of the following are appropriate replacement behaviors? • Complete work at a table by herself • Schedule a time to show completed work to the teacher • Move her to sit by another student • Asking to take a break from tasks Think Pair Share

  38. Teaching Behavior for Attention Seeking Teach behaviors to use instead of the problem behavior or desired behaviors Teach student more appropriate ways ask for help from teacher or peers Red card/Green card “I need a break” card Access to a peer mentor Skip problem and move on until teacher or peer can help

  39. Teaching Behavior for Avoiding Tasks Provide academic instruction and support to address any skill deficits the student may have More focused instruction in class Additional instructional group Special Education support for academic deficit Additional support and practice at home Additional assessment to identify specific skill deficits

  40. Jason cries when asked to do difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by avoiding or escaping the tasks. Which of the following are appropriate replacement behaviors? • Asking for a break from tasks • Asking for help from a peer • Requesting adult attention • Asking to have soda after tasks are done Think Pair Share

  41. Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequences The Competing Pathways Model Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Alternative Replacement Behavior Behavior Support Planning Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Behavior Teaching Consequence Manipulations Preventing problem behavior and prompting desired behavior Neutralize / eliminate setting events Teach alternative that is more efficient Add effective & remove ineffective reinforcers

  42. Consequence Strategies Change consequences that have supported rather than eliminated the problem behavior Do NOT allow the negative behavior to pay off for the student, put the negative behavior on extinction Reward appropriate behavior to make the problem behavior ineffective

  43. Example: Consequence Strategies We must refuse to (C) let Jane avoid math tasks for (B) throwing a tantrum & instead prompt her to raise her hand and (C) reward her for (B) raising her hand and asking for a break By not providing Jane with what she wants when she throws a tantrum, we are making the problem behavior ineffective

  44. Example: Consequence Strategies It is crucial that we work hard to reinforce Jane for engaging in the alternative behavior, or she is likely to go back to and even escalate the problem behavior 15:1

  45. Consequence Strategies for Attention Seeking Respond quickly if student seeks attention appropriately (i.e. asks question in normal speaking tone vs. yelling) Give the student frequent attention, praise, or reinforcer for positive behavior Eliminate/minimize the amount of attention provided to a student for engaging in problem behavior Limit verbal interaction—it’s attention!! Create a signal to prompt student to stop the problem behavior Avoid power struggles

  46. Read the handout on Positive Peer Reports Put a check mark next to anything in the handout you already knew Highlight any new information from the handout Share with your partner, one of your check marks and new information you highlighted Partner Activity

  47. Consequence Strategies for Avoiding Tasks Respond quickly if student asks for help or for a break Give the student frequent attention, praise, or reinforcer for being on-task, genuinely trying hard, completing work, or for asking for a break or help appropriately Eliminate/minimize the amount of missed instructional time or work provided to a student for engaging in problem behavior However, need to make sure student is capable of doing work…or provide support/instruction so student can complete the work

  48. Consequence Strategies for Avoiding Tasks Sometimes students need additional encouragement to engage in the desired behavior….. When using additional incentives to encourage student positive behavior consider: Free homework passes Reduced numbers of problems Portions of work already completed Frequent self checks

  49. Independently: Review the procedure for “Dots For Motivation” As a Team: Discuss with your team if this is a potential intervention for some of the students you work with who avoid tasks Team Time

  50. Recall Jane Jane is a 2nd grade student Problem behaviors: Refusing to do work Throwing tantrums (whining, pounding her hands on her desk, and throwing papers on the floor) Behaviors occur most often in math class when she is given a math assignment After she throws a tantrum: She is sent to the back table where she talks with other students who have completed the assignment