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Enhancing Patient-Provider Communication

Enhancing Patient-Provider Communication

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Enhancing Patient-Provider Communication

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  1. Enhancing Patient-Provider Communication Suzanne Bennett Johnson Florida State University College of Medicine Management Of Diabetes In Youth Biannual Conference of the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes Keystone Colorado, July 14, 2008

  2. Defining Compliance • “the extent to which a person’ behavior • (in terms of medications, following diets, or executing lifestyle changes) • coincides with medical or health advice” • Haynes et al, 1979

  3. Helping People Manage Diabetes 1. Clear communication of medical/health advice

  4. Patient-Provider Miscommunication Provider Recall Patient Recall Recall of recommendations by the health care team and by patients in a diabetes clinic. Adapted from Page et al (1981).

  5. DON’T…... use medical jargon use vague prescriptions provide too many recommendations assume the patient understands expect patients to recall your medical advice DO…... use simple explanations be specific prioritize, give a few critical recommendations ask the patient to describe the treatment plan give your patient written recommendations Clear Communication: Do’s and Don’ts

  6. Helping People Manage Diabetes Helping People 1. Clear communication of medical/health advice 2. Teach knowledge and skills necessary for good disease management

  7. Skill Deficits in Diabetes Management Johnson et al, 1998 Watkins et al, 1967 Johnson et al, 1982

  8. DON’T…... Assume knowledge/skill Teach too much at one time Assume one-session learning Assume skills will remain accurate over time DO…... Observe behavior Prioritize, teach one skill at a time Repeat instruction Make skill assessment and instruction part of standard care Knowledge/Skill Assessment and Instruction: Do’s and Don’ts

  9. Helping People Manage Diabetes Helping People 1. Clear communication of medical/health advice 2. Teach knowledge and skills necessary for good disease management 3. Make assessing behavior part of standard care

  10. What is the Best Way to Assess Patient Behavior? • Glycosylated hemoglobin: • most popular method but provides limited and often misleading information

  11. Presumed Relationship Between Patient Behavior and Glycemic Control Glycosylated Hemoglobin good poor good Compliance poor

  12. The Relationship Between Patient Behavior and Glycemic Control in Childhood Diabetes

  13. The Relationship Between Compliance with Medication and Subsequent Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Steelworkers

  14. Glycosylated hemoglobin • Is a poor measure of patient behavior because • patient behavior and GHb are only weakly related • GHb provides no specific information about what patient behaviors need to be changed • it can lead to • “patient blaming” • missed opportunities to correct problem behavior

  15. What is the Best Way to Assess Patient Behavior? • Glycosylated hemoglobin: • most popular method but provides limited and often misleading information • Pill counts and glucose testing meters: useful but provide limited information • Physician/investigator ratings: most unreliable of all methods

  16. Diabetes Regimen Compliance

  17. Patients do not have “compliant” or “noncompliant” personalities They do exhibit both compliant and noncompliant behaviors Behavior with one component of the diabetes regimen does not predict behavior with any other component

  18. What is the Best Way to Assess Patient Behavior? • Observational methods are now available for • insulin injection • blood glucose testing • Provide useful information for some behaviors • Can be adapted to assess other behaviors

  19. What is the Best Way to Assess Patient Behavior? • Patient self-reports: underutilized and viewed with skepticism • Available methods permit good quality self-report data to be obtained when the patient describes time limited intervals (24 hr) of recent occurrence (yesterday) in temporal sequence (waking to retiring) • The only method to provide detailed, reliable information about actual behavior

  20. Conducting a 24-hr Recall Interview • Patient describes yesterday’s events from waking until retiring • Interviewer prompts for missing information • Interviewer is always nonjudgmental • Family member may be interviewed separately about the patient’s behavior • Several interviews (about both weekend and weekdays) provide more information

  21. DON’T…... Use GHb to assess behavior Ask what the patient “usually” does Ask if the patient “knows” how to do a regimen task Describe a patient as “noncompliant” DO.….. Assess behavior directly Ask what the patient did yesterday Observe the patient carry out the task Specify which behaviors are problematic Assessing Behavior as Part of Standard Care: Do’s and Don’ts

  22. Helping People Manage Diabetes 1. Clear communication of medical/health advice 2. Teach knowledge and skills necessary for good disease management 3. Make assessing behavior part of standard care 4. Encourage patient honesty

  23. Log Book vs Memory Meter Data Mazze et al, 1984

  24. DON’T……. Be judgmental Criticize and threaten Expect too much Ignore good behavior DO…… Accept less than perfect behavior Do problem solve Set realistic goals Praise even small positive behavior change Encouraging Patient Honesty: Do’s and Don’ts

  25. Helping People Change 1. Clear communication of medical/health advice 2. Teach knowledge and skills necessary for good disease management 3. Make assessing behavior part of standard care 4. Encourage patient honesty 5. Build consensus about disease management

  26. Patients do what they can do Patients do what they want to do

  27. BG Goals: Parents vs Pediatricians Glycemic Profile Selected as Ideal (Marteau et al, 1987)

  28. Terminology: Does it matter? • Compliance • Adherence • Self-Care

  29. DON’T Make arbitrary recommendations Assume patient understands rationale Assume patient accepts your rationale Force patient acceptance DO Discuss options with patient Provide a clear explanation Discuss patient attitudes and beliefs Negotiate a mutually agreeable plan Consensus Building: Do’s and Don’ts

  30. Helping People Manage Diabetes 1. Clear communication of medical/health advice 2. Teach knowledge and skills necessary for good disease management 3. Make assessing behavior part of standard care 4. Encourage patient honesty 5. Build consensus about disease management 6. Attend to patient feelings, worries, concerns

  31. The Anxiety/Performance Curve High Performance Low High Low Anxiety

  32. Common Patient Concerns • Insulin (or other medication) effects • Pain (associated with injections, glucose testing) • Hypoglycemia • Weight gain (associated with intensive therapy) • Expense, insurance access, employment • Interpersonal (family, social) disruptions • Complications

  33. Helping People Manage Diabetes 1. Clear communication of medical/health advice 2. Teach knowledge and skills necessary for good disease management 3. Make assessing behavior part of standard care 4. Encourage patient honesty 5. Build consensus about disease management 6. Attend to patient feelings, worries, concerns