2 1 management of spate irrigation systems n.
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2.1 Management of spate irrigation systems

2.1 Management of spate irrigation systems

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2.1 Management of spate irrigation systems

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  1. 2.1Management of spate irrigation systems

  2. Management of spate irrigation:role of local government and user organisations Viability of spate irrigation systems is determined by strength of organisations

  3. Management arrangements Three types: • Farmer management • Farmer management and local government • Farmer management and specialized agency management

  4. Farmer managed systems Arrangements for farmer management Rules on maintenance and water distribution Internal organisation External support mechanisms Activities beyond spate management

  5. Rules on maintenance and water distribution Water distribution: Defines who has access to the floodwater and on what terms Linked to contributions in maintenance

  6. Rules on maintenance and water distribution Arrangements that relate maintenance to water allocation ·Contribution according to shares – contribute in accordance to his land share irrespective of whether it was irrigated or not. ·Graded contributions – contribution related to likelihood of irrigation ·Contribution according to capacity – those that have draught animals are expected to bring them, those that do not, only provide labour ·Contribution according to benefit – for instance proportion of harvest ·Contribution by contract - only those who want to be entitled to water contribute. All others are expected to close their field inlets.

  7. Rules on maintenance and water distribution Important requirement of maintenance is their robustness – ability to keep the systems going even in ‘bad’ years

  8. Internal organisationin farmer managed systems Typical Characteristics Minimum overhead costs Maintenance organised as common labour Seasonal (paid) functionaries Sub-groups

  9. Committee Meetings in Bada, Eritrea The first meeting of the committee and group leaders is usually held after the harvest to discuss the reconstruction of the diversion structure (agim). The second meeting takes place after the reconstruction work to evaluate the work on the agim. The third meeting is held before the start of the planting season to discuss if diversion structures requires additional maintenance and if measures to avoid crop damage by pests and livestock are necessary. During this meeting the committee usually also decides which fields should be irrigated with the water of late floods. The fourth meeting takes place after the planting period to organise crop protection and to discuss measures to control damage by floods especially in the field to field system. Meetings should be attended by at least two-third of all farmers. Farmers absent during a meeting have to accept the decisions made.

  10. Internal organisation Functionaries – typical tasks Coordinate water supply to the flood channel Supervise water distribution along the channel Organize repair works Mobilisation of contributions for maintenance

  11. Example Ex Sheikh al-Wadeyeen (master of two wadis) Wadi Tuban, Yemen • Determine the water share of each main • canal, following consultation of each Sheikh-al • Obar (canal leader) • Decide the number of days that water is • allocated to each main canal • Decide the required work to divert spate water • at head reach

  12. Malaaka (Ethiopia) • Organizes maintenance • Ensure emergency measures • Oversees the agreed water • distribution • Can allow water to go to • non-command areas

  13. Raakha (engineer/guard on earthen bund), DI Khan, Pakistan ·supervise the layout and position of earthen bund, when it is constructed; ·before the rainy season inspects the structure and points out weaker sections ·vigilance during the spate season and communication with individual field owners, water user association, down stream farmers and with revenue department ·witness breaching of the sadd/Ghandi ·keep contacts with raakha of next downstream structure(s). Example

  14. Internal organisationin farmer managed systems • Existence of sub-groups • Easy mobilisation of labour for maintenance at block and group/flood channel level • Facilitation of the implementation of rules

  15. Example Ternafi (subcommand leader), Sheeb, Eritrea ·      assess the amount of labour required to carry out specific works; ·      mobilise labour for maintenance of irrigation structures; ·      supervise the works undertaken by farmers of his group; ·check if all fields in his group receive irrigation water; ·      convey information and directives from the local administration/Ministry of Agriculture to the sub-group leaders; ·      investigate reasons when a farmer has not contributed labour during collective works; ·      transfer messages and requests from to the local administration ·  prepare written reports about the works undertaken by his group


  17. External support Social organisation required to mobilize human and animal power for construction of diversion structures has been difficult to sustain in places: For instance the outmigration after a drought can cause the loss of a ‘critical mass’ of people to maintain and repair the system Or where there is inequity and ‘powerplay’ certain areas are deprived of water Need to support for instance by: Organizing Water Users Associations – but be careful to do it right Support of earthmoving equipment: allow the timely reconstruction of the diversion bunds

  18. Activities beyond spate management Main task local farmer organisations: Organisation of maintenance and the enforcement of water distribution rules However: These organisations may function as well in other situations (social capital is there): land disputes, tenancy, crop planning, extension and marketing

  19. Farmer management and local government Local government/administration: Play a constructive and supplementary role in organising maintenance and supervising water distribution Facilitate other processes in spate irrigation Intervene when necessary Use (old) water right records

  20. Example • Teshildar, Kacchi, Pakistan: • (local government): • Oversees water distribution • between different area on • same river • Oversees that no new areas • are developed • Organizes collection of tax


  22. EXAMPLE: AGRICULTURAL COUNCIL TUBAN 1950 YEMEN ·Director of Agriculture (chairman), Permanent Secretary of the Department of Agriculture (deputy chairman) and seventeen to twenty five members, representing the landlords and cultivators. ·Mashayikh al-A’bar (supervisors of channels) from the two wadis may be invited to attend meetings but their opinions shall be advisory in nature. ·The Director of Agriculture shall submit to HH the Sultan a list of the names of those whom he nominates for the membership of the Agricultural Council, and H.H. the Sultan shall select from among them the required number. ·The term of membership of the Council shall be for two years as from the date of appointment.

  23. Division of water between the two main wadis Supervising water distribution and irrigation sequence within the area Rationalizing tenancy rules Distribution of land among small and large cultivators. Maintenance of channels and barrages. Devising of a system for dealing with lands which are forced to pay maintenance contributions but which were not irrigated Regulation of maintenance charges on channels and wadis, and assigning a special fund for them. Introduction of a special system for thesecond irrigation of land is planted with red sorghum, so that the local food security is ensured Scrutinize agricultural land sales Review penalties applied to offenders and transgressors. Issue annual report of revenues and expenditure, submit it to H.H. the Sultan, and then have it published for the information of the public. Issue bye-laws and put them into execution after obtaining the assent of H.H. the Sultan. FUNCTIONS OF THE COUNCIL

  24. ·Convene twice each month , During the spate season at least twice weekly ·If a member fails to attend four consecutive sessions without permission, he is regarded as having resigned ·All decisions of the Council shall be taken by simple majority vote When the votes are equal the Chairman shall have a casting vote ; Quorum shall be considered to be established only when more than half the number of Council members are assembled.

  25. Agency management Specialized agencies take responsibility for the management of spate systems Examples:Tihama Development Authority, Rod Kohi Authority

  26. Agency management suffers from: • Inability to live up to the promise of basic maintenance as a result of under funding • Inability to manage and distribute water in a moderately fair manner because of poor links to farmer organisations or local government • Continued high expectations

  27. Agency management Agency managements suffer from: Inability to live up to the promise of basic maintenance as a result of under funding Inability to manage and distribute water in a moderately fair manner because of poor links to farmer organisations or local government Continued high expectations

  28. Recommendations • Important factors for improvement projects in farmer management: • Clear leadership • Clear arrangements for maintenance • Low-cost structures • Limited permanent positions • Strengthening sub-groups • Extend role of local government organisations

  29. Recommendations • Important factors for improvement projects in agency management: • Reduction of role in water distribution • Limit involvement to complex maintenance • Promotion of effective communication • Involvement of farmer representatives