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  1. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Theories of Motivation Section 2:Biological and Social Motives Section 3:Emotions Chapter Menu

  2. Chapter Objectives · Section 1 Theories of Motivation Explain motivation and why we experience it in different ways. Chapter Preview 1

  3. Chapter Objectives · Section 2 Biological and Social Motives Understand that biological needs are physiological requirements we must fulfill to survive, whereas social needs are learned through experience. Chapter Preview 2

  4. Chapter Objectives · Section 3 Emotions Describe the three parts of emotions—the physical, cognitive, and behavioral aspects. Chapter Preview 3

  5. Chapter Preview-End

  6. Main Idea Psychologists explain motivation and why we experience it in different ways through instinct, drive-reduction, incentive, and cognitive theories of motivation. Section 1-Main Idea

  7. Vocabulary • motivation • instincts • need • drive • homeostasis • incentive • extrinsic motivation • intrinsic motivation Section 1-Key Terms

  8. Objectives • Describe four theories of motivation. • Discuss the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Section 1-Objectives

  9. A B C D Which emotion motivates you the most? A.Fear B.Love C.Desire D.Guilt Section 1-Polling Question

  10. Theories of Motivation • Motivation • Psychologists infer motivation from goal-directed behavior. Section 1

  11. Theories of Motivation(cont.) • Theories regarding motivation: • Instinct • Drive-reduction • Incentive • Cognitive Section 1

  12. A B C D Which theory do you think best explains motivation? A.Instinct theory B.Drive-reduction theory C.Incentive theory D.Cognitive Section 1

  13. Instinct Theory • William McDougall proposed that humans were motivated by a variety of instincts. • Instinctsare innate tendencies that determine behavior. • William James proposed that humans have instincts such as cleanliness, curiosity, parental love, sociability, and sympathy. Section 1

  14. Instinct Theory(cont.) • However, instincts do not explain behavior; they simply label behavior. Section 1

  15. A B C D Which psychologist used the instinct theory to explain motivation? A.James B.McDougall C.Both D.Neither Section 1

  16. Drive-Reduction Theory • The thing that motivates us starts with a need that leads to a drive. • Need • Drive Section 1

  17. Drive-Reduction Theory (cont.) • Drive-reduction theory states that physiological needs drive an organism to act in either random or habitual ways. • Biological needs drive an organism to act, and the organism strives to maintain homeostasis. Section 1

  18. Drive-Reduction Theory (cont.) • Clark Hull suggested that all human motives are extensions of basic biological needs. • Harry Harlow and others doubted Hull and proved that other factors, such as pleasure, also play a role. • They conducted experiments using baby monkeys and surrogate mothers. Section 1

  19. A B C Do you think disrupting your homeostasis can be pleasurable? A.Yes B.No C.Not sure Section 1

  20. Incentive Theory • Incentive • People are motivated to obtain positive incentives and to avoid negative incentives. • The cognitive expectations of humans also guide their behavior. Section 1

  21. A B C D Which drive motivates you the most? A.Hunger B.Sleep C.Keeping warm D.Having fun Section 1

  22. Cognitive Theory • Cognitive psychologists seek to explain motivation by looking at forces inside and outside of us that energize us to move. • According to them, we act in particular ways at particular times as a result of extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. Section 1

  23. Cognitive Theory(cont.) • Extrinsic motivation • Intrinsic motivation • Sometimes we engage in an activity because of both types of motivation. • Overjustification effect: when people are given more extrinsic motivation than necessary to perform a task, their intrinsic motivation declines. Section 1

  24. A B C Do you think saving money for a car is an extrinsic or intrinsic motivation? A.Extrinsic B.Intrinsic C.Both Section 1

  25. Section 1-End

  26. Main Idea Much of life is spent trying to satisfy biological and social needs. Biological needs are physiological requirements that we must fulfill to survive, whereas social needs are those that are learned through experience. Section 2-Main Idea

  27. Vocabulary • lateral hypothalamus (LH) • ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) • fundamental needs • psychological needs • self-actualization needs Section 2-Key Terms

  28. Objectives • Describe the biological and social needs of humans. • Explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Section 2-Objectives

  29. A B C Do you think it is important to be successful in school? A.Yes B.No C.Not sure Section 2-Polling Question

  30. Biological Motives • Some behavior is determined by the internal, or physiological, state of the organism. • The nervous system is constructed in such a way that dramatic variations in blood sugar, water, oxygen, salt, or essential vitamins lead to changes in behavior designed to return the body to a condition of chemical balance, or homeostasis. Some Biological andSocial Needs Section 2

  31. Biological Motives (cont.) • Several of the drives that motivate behavior are homeostatic, such as hunger. • Your body requires food to grow, repair itself, and to store reserves. Section 2

  32. Biological Motives (cont.) • Lateral hypothalamus (LH) • Ventromedial hypothalamus(VMH) • The glucostatic theory—the hypothalamus monitors the amount of glucose, or ready energy, available in the blood. • Set-point—the weight around which your day-to-day weight tends to fluctuate. Section 2

  33. Biological Motives (cont.) • The hypothalamus interprets at least three kinds of information: • The amount of glucose entering the cells of your body. • Your set-point. • Your body temperature. Section 2

  34. Biological Motives (cont.) • Other factors tied to hunger: • Psychosocial hunger factors—external cues that can affect eating, such as where, when, and what we eat. • Obesity—a genetic component may predispose some people to obesity. Percentage ofOverweight Americans Section 2

  35. Biological Motives (cont.) • Stanley Schachter and his colleagues conducted studies to prove that overweight people respond to external cues, while normal-weight people respond to internal cures. Section 2

  36. A B C D Do you feel that you only eat when you are hungry, or that you are also affected by external cues? A.Internal cues B.External cues C.Both A and B D.None of the above Section 2

  37. Social Motives • Social motives are learned from our interactions with other people. • The achievement motive concerns the desire to set challenging goals and to persist in trying to reach those goals despite obstacles, frustrations, and set-backs. Section 2

  38. Social Motives (cont.) • David McClelland measured achievement motivation using the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). • 83% of the entrepreneurs scored high in achievement, but only 21% of the nonentrepreneurs scored that high. Section 2

  39. Social Motives (cont.) • Other people are motivated by a fear of failure. • People display this fear when they choose easy tasks offering assured success or impossible tasks with no chance of success. • They often find excuses to explain their poor performance. Section 2

  40. Social Motives (cont.) • Some people also have a fear of success. • Matina Horner conducted a study showing that success involves deep conflicts for some people. • Although, it is very difficult to define success or to tell whether a person who does not try something is afraid of success or failure. Section 2

  41. Social Motives (cont.) • Other theories: • J.W. Atkinson developed an expectancy-value theory to explain goal-directed behavior. • Competency theory—too easy a task or too difficult a task means we do not learn anything about how competent we are. Your Performance Section 2

  42. Social Motives (cont.) • Abraham Maslow believed that all human beings need to feel competent to win approval and recognition, and to sense that they have achieved something. • He believed that some needs take precedence over others and that achieving one level of satisfaction releases new needs and motivations. Maslow’s Hierarchy ofNeeds Section 2

  43. Social Motives (cont.) • Maslow placed achievement motivation in the context of a hierarchy of needs: • Physiological needs (a fundamental need) • Safety needs (a fundamental need) • Belongingness and love needs (a psychological need) • Esteem needs (a psychological need) • The need to fulfill one’s potential (a self-actualization need) Section 2

  44. A B C D Achieving goals, feeling competent, and gaining approval and recognition would all under which need in Maslow’s hierarchy? A.Physiological needs B.Safety needs C.Belongingness and love needs D.Esteem needs Section 2

  45. Section 2-End

  46. Main Idea All emotions consist of three parts—the physical, cognitive, and behavioral aspects. Theories of emotion propose that emotions result from physical changes and/or mental processes. Section 3-Main Idea

  47. Vocabulary • emotion Section 3-Key Terms

  48. Objectives • Give examples of the physiological theories of emotion. • Explain the cognitive theorists’ approach to the study of emotion. Section 3-Objectives

  49. A B C D Do you consider yourself to be an emotional person? A.Very much so B.Somewhat C.Not very much so D.Not at all Section 3-Polling Question