Hist 101 World Civilization II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Hist 101 World Civilization II
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Hist 101 World Civilization II

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  1. Hist 101World Civilization II Asia in the 20th Century

  2. Asia in the 20th CenturyChina Becomes a Republic • China remained a weak, divided nation in the late 19th and early 20th century • The Qing Dynasty finally fell in 1912 when the Emperor Puyi was forced to abdicate by revolutionaries under Sun Yat-sen • After the establishment of the Republic, China dissolved into an era of warlords controlling various parts of the country, while many of China’s ports essentially were under foreign control • Finally in the mid-1920s, Sun’s protégé, Chiang Kai-shek consolidated rule, although rivals such as the Communists under Mao remained a problem Sun Yat-sen Chiang Kai-shek

  3. Asia in the 20th CenturyWorld War II in China • WWII arguably started in China • Japan seized Manchuria in 1931 • It invaded the rest of China in 1937 • Responding to Japanese aggression distracted Chiang from badly need reform efforts • It also forced him to put aside his war against the Communists to ally with them against the Japanese • The wartime alliance benefited the Communists more than Chiang’s Kuomintang • The communists emerged as heroes in the eyes of China’s peasants • Chiang lost 3 million troops and was so weakened when the civil war resumed after WWII he was forced in 1949 to flee to Taiwan

  4. Asia in the 20th CenturyThe People’s Republic • China under the Communists was dominated until 1976 by Mao Zedong • Mao soon collectivized Chinese agriculture and launched a campaign against “class enemies” • The Great Leap Forward (1950s) • Tried to create industrial workshops among peasants • Disastrous policy leading to millions of deaths from famine • Cultural Revolution (1960s) • Mao sought to recapture the fervor of the era of guerilla struggle • Encouraged the young to form units of “Red Guards” • Mao set the Red Guards against enemies real and perceived Mao Zedong

  5. Asia in the 20th CenturyChina after Mao • Mao died in 1976, power passed to a formal rival of Mao, Deng Xiaoping • New policies • Collectivization of agriculture ends • Private enterprise legalized, foreign investment allowed and encouraged • The state remained very involved in economic activity • The Communist Party retained its monopoly on power, ruthlessly crushing a student-led pro-democracy movement protesting in Tiananmen Square in 1989 • Since then China’s wealth and international power have continued to expand greatly Deng Xiaoping

  6. Asia in the 20th CenturyJapan: Embracing Defeat • After its surrender, Japan came under American occupation • The military governor of Japan was Gen. Douglas MacArthur • MacArthur implemented basic reforms in Japan • These reforms kept the emperor in place, but successfully suppressed Japanese militarism and planted the seeds of Japanese democracy and made the nation a staunch U.S. ally in the Cold War • Stripped of its military power, Japan applied its creative energy to business, becoming an economic powerhouse in international industry and trade

  7. Asia in the 20th CenturyIndia (1) • During the prewar period a powerful movement had emerged seeking independence from Britain • It was centered in the Indian National Congress, but its spiritual leader was Mahatma Gandhi • Gandhi encouraged non-violent resistance to British rule • He was alternately ignored, jailed, and courted by the British • His biggest frustration was violent extremist elements in the independence movement • Independence (1947) • The Labour Party government that took power after WWII in Britain decided to grant India independence • Its biggest problem was the Muslim refusal to join India, necessitating the creation of Pakistan Mahatma Gandhi

  8. Asia in the 20th CenturyIndia (2) • India-Pakistan relations • Since independence, both India and Pakistan repeatedly went to war • The flashpoints have varied: the province of Kashmir, East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), and old religious hatreds • During the Cold War, Pakistan allied itself with the U.S., India with the USSR • The conflict has become especially worrisome since the 1990s when both countries successfully tested nuclear weapons • India has emerged from its Cold War protectionist economy to become a major high tech player, particularly in software development and in service outsourcing