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  1. Methodologies Tom Sheffrey, CCC, PSP, CEP April 21, 2011

  2. The Project Management Discipline Umbrella Covers various professions (or disciplines): Project Manager Planner and Scheduler Cost Estimator Cost Engineer and Controller

  3. The Quality Umbrella Covers: Project Management Engineering Accounting Business Operations Etc.

  4. Project Management Methodologies • PMI • Prince 2 • Bridging (George Heery) – more for construction • Last Planner (Glenn Ballard) – also more for construction

  5. Planning and Scheduling Methodologies • CPM • Linear • Thompson’s Rule • Matrix • Marchant • Horse Blanket • ~~~~ Last Planner

  6. PMI and Construction (Last Planner) • Knowledge areas • Schedule compression (vs. schedule reduction) • Earned Value Method • Project controls • Managing the project

  7. More about EVM • Traditional projects measure plan against actual • Construction does that but also asks three questions - was the right work done? in the right way? and in the right sequence? • EVM is not really used for Last Planner

  8. More about Project Controls • Traditional method “controls” the project through after-the-fact detection of variances. • Construction asks the questions (again) - was the right work done? in the right way? and in the right sequence? • SPI and CPI not really used by Last Planner

  9. Last Planner • Proactive instead of reactive • Makes use of: • Management of production • Look-ahead schedules • Pareto analysis • Uses a percentage of assignments completed (PPC) • A change in managing a project

  10. Management of Production (the old way) • The purpose of control is to cause events to happen – which is essentially control of behavior • Without corrective actions a project control system becomes merely a cost/schedule reporting system.

  11. Management of Production (the old way) Continued • What is wrong with the “old way”? • It is impossible to make good decisions about causes or corrections of deviations, relying only on productivity and progress data, without understanding work flow. (The old problem of having data - not information.)

  12. Management of Production (the new way) • The project is conceived as a temporary production system. It is the flow of materials and information that is to be controlled. • Two new components of the project: • Production unit control • Work flow control (handled by look-ahead)

  13. Look-ahead • Functions of the Look-ahead Process

  14. What was planned and what was completed …a quality tool to analyze a problem

  15. Pareto Chart

  16. Percent Plan Complete (PPC) • PPC is the number of planned activities completed, divided by the total number of planned activities, and expressed as a percentage. • 75% is a good number (the goal is 100%) • The PPC then becomes the number to use in place of EVM or any other measurement (i.e.. CPI, SPI, etc.).

  17. Now, we analyze why work didn’t get done Is it because…..??? • Faulty information provided to the Last Planner; e.g. the information system incorrectly indicated that information was available or that prerequisite work was complete. • Failure to apply quality criteria to assignments: e.g. too much work was planned • Failure in coordination of shared resources; e.g. lack of a computer or plotter • Change in priority; e.g. workers reassigned temporarily to a “hot” task • Design error or vendor error discovered in the attempt to carry out a planned activity

  18. Take action to reduce repeat of errors

  19. Must first determine whose error it was. Is it a planning error or an execution error?

  20. Work did not complete because a machine broke down • Work did not happen because the labor crew was not large enough (or some people didn’t show up for work) • Work did not happen because material not on site • Work did not happen because prerequisite work did not happen

  21. Summary of changes for the Project Manager What is important…… the assignment is well defined the right sequence of work is selected the right amount of work is selected the work selected is practical or sound (i.e. can be done) the work is ready to be done (pre-reqs have been met)

  22. Summary continued CHANGES….. • The use of look-aheads (for some) • Hold others accountable for keeping their weekly work plan commitments. • Incorporate reasons identifications, analysis, and corrective action into weekly coordinating meetings*. (Otherwise, there is a danger that incompletion work will become accepted as unavoidable.) * Very Important

  23. What was said….. Methodologies PMI vs Construction (Last Planner) Measurements (EVM, CPI, SPI) and PPC Pareto - analysis and actions Look-ahead Changes for the PM