Develop a Project Identity Step Nine
Step 9: Identity Action Summary • Nature of the task • To create an identity that will clearly communicate your image and your intended relationship with your audience (e.g., your purpose and why it’s important) • Complete the Worksheet. • Generic information p. 51 wkbk • Blank worksheets p. 93 wkbk
Step 9: Identity Action Summary Tips • Use examples from a wide variety of sources to help determine your preferences. • Produce materials that “carry the identity” (e.g. name, logo, mission statement, etc. - start with the easiest!). • Manage your identity.
Step 9 Worksheet • What four things (styles, attitude, relationships) do you want people to think about you, your issues and your services. • How do you want people to feel? • What distinguishes your project from others? • How does your project complement others? Build on others?
Identity amplifies the impact of a campaign: • Helps people remember key messages because they can connect discrete messages. • Stimulates conversation and comment. • In time, the unifying features could come to represent the messages leading people to immediately recall the campaign messages when the symbol is presented.
Display identity throughout • A campaign identity includes: • where you meet, how you dress, how you answer the phone, etc • a mission or vision • a positioning statement/copy platform, • slogan • name • logo or distinguishing signature • images • Identity defines, distinguishes, and synergizes.
Mission Statements A good mission statement articulates very clearly what the purpose of the organization is. A great mission statement provides clarity and passion. • “To establish Merck as the preeminent drug-maker worldwide.” … Merck, 1979 • “To be number two in the beer industry by the end of the 1990s.” … Coors, 1990 • “We’re going to democratize the automobile.” …Henry Ford, 1909 • “Our whole people and empire have vowed themselves to the single task of cleansing Europe of the Nazi pestilence and saving the world from the new dark ages. We seek to beat the life and soul out of Hitler and Hiterlism. That alone. That all the time. That to the end.” … Winston Churchill, 1940
When Considering a Name • Known terms are familiar and engaging, yet often confusing because they can have multiple meanings • E.g. “healthy weights” • Using neutral terms is safer, and still engaging, but there is less confusion • E.g. “Zone”, “Balance”, “Winning” • Using acronyms is safe, though meaning can be less clear
Identity • Display it • Share it • Protect it
Step 10: Production Action Summary • Nature of the task • Develop specs for each desired product (vehicle), select and contract with suppliers, and manage production process. • Complete worksheet. • Generic information p. 55 wkbk • Blank worksheets p. 94 wkbk (adapt freely!) • Tips • Try to produce the best materials, within budget, on time! • Be sure to manage reviews and sign-off’s very carefully.
The Golden Rule of Production You can only pick two of these: • Speed • Quality • Low Cost
Clear Communication • Readability • Words • Style and reading level • Organization • De-Fog Your Prose • Get it Right • Visuals • Layout and print • Illustrations • Test, test, test
De-Fog Your ProsePositive & Negatives A linguistics professor was lecturing to his class one day. “In English,” he said, “a double negative forms a positive. In some languages though, such as Russian, a double negative is still a negative. However,” he pointed out, “there is no language wherein a double positive can form a negative.” A voice from the back of the room piped up, “Yeah. Right.”
Resources and Services: Clear Language 1. Canadian Public Health Association 1565 Carling Avenue, Suite 400 Ottawa, ON K1Z 8R1 (613) 725-3769; Fax: (613) 725-9862 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgWebsite : www.nald.ca/nlhp.html • fee for service basis • health communication training package, video, Plain.word game, working with low-literacy seniors package 2. Clear Language and Design (CLAD) Toronto East End Literacy Project www.EastEndLiteracy.on.ca/clearlanguageanddesign Sally McBeth email@example.com • fee for service basis
The Great Scavenger Hunt • A great logo (public, voluntary, or private sector) • A great positioning statement • An example of the use of a spokesperson(s) that helps define an organization and/or its product and services. • An example of how a product or organization distinguishes itself from others. • A visual or statement that demonstrates collaboration and/or cooperation (synergy). • An example of a confusing and/or poor identity. • A great name for an organization • A great slogan • Material that is well-organized • Material that is well-written and appropriate for the audience • Excellent illustrations and other visuals that are appealing and create high impact • Excellent layout and use of design elements (print, borders, etc) • Materials that pay attention to cultural norms and meanings
Debriefing • What I learned… • What I struggled with… • In ‘real life’ I would… • In ‘real life’ I would not…
Evaluation (p.61) Step Twelve
Step 12: Evaluation Action Summary • Nature of the task: • Gather, interpret and act upon qualitative and quantitative information throughout the 11 steps. • Complete worksheet • Generic information p. 61 wkbk • Blank worksheet p. 99 wkbk • Tips • through the steps in the workbook, paying most attention to clearly identifying stakeholder expectations, finding resources for the evaluation, and being sure your efforts are “evaluable”.
Three Types of Evaluation (p.62) • Formative evaluation includes audience analysis and pre-testing. Purpose is to maximize chance of success before starting. • Process evaluation examines how a program in progress is operating. • Summative evaluation methods usually consist of a comparison between audience’s awareness, attitudes and/or behaviour before and after.
Step 12: How to Evaluate Health Promotion Programs • Get Ready to Evaluate • Establish clearly defined goals and objectives • Identify measurable success indicators • Engage Stakeholders • Understand stakeholders’ interests and expectations • Engage stakeholder participation • Develop evaluation questions • Assess Resources For the Evaluation • Determine availability of staff and resources and amount of money allocated for evaluation • Design The Evaluation • select type of evaluation to be conducted • design evaluation framework • consider ethical issues and confidentiality • Decide on qualitative versus quantitative methods • Assess strengths/weaknesses of different methods of measurement • Select your sampling design
How to Evaluate (con’t) • Develop Work Plan, Budget, and Timeline for Evaluation • Collect the Data Using Agreed Upon Methods and Procedures • Pilot test • Collect data • Process and Analyze the Data • Prepare data for analysis • Analyze data • Interpret and Disseminate the Results • Interpret • Present • Share • Take Action
Can health communication campaign’s work? • Most researchers agree they can impact on awareness, knowledge and attitudes. • However, major trials over the last two decades (Stanford, Minnesota, COMMIT) has fostered skepticism about the effects on behaviour. • In his recent book, Professor Hornik concludes that “There is good evidence for the effects of public health communication”. Andreasen, A. 2002. Book review of “Public Health Communication: Evidence for Behaviour Change by Robert Hornik. 2002”. In Social Marketing Quarterly. Vol VIII, No. 3.
Hornik’s comments on effectiveness • Exposure is the key. • Three pathways to effects: • Direct • Influence media & opinion leaders to change social norms. • Alert policy-makers to need for structural changes. • Many communication effects are not due to planned interventions, but to the increased media attention to the issue. This makes it difficult to detect effects. • As reprinted inAndreasen, A. 2002. Book review of “Public Health Communication: Evidence for Behaviour Change by Robert Hornik. 2002”. In Social Marketing Quarterly. Vol VIII, No. 3.
Why Campaigns Fail • Inadequate exposure • Various audience perception barriers (may also be considered message design flaws!) • Certain types of messages may trigger boomerang effects • Planners/sponsors succumb to various ‘temptations’ • Lack of attention to proven planning principles
1. Inadequate Exposure • Low volume • Design (doesn’t catch attention) From Atkin, C. 2001. Impact of Public Service Advertising: Research Evidence and Effective Strategies. Project conducted for Kaiser Family Foundation.
2. Audience Perception Barriers (a.k.a design flaws!) • Denial of susceptibility • Denial of relevance • Rejection of unpalatable recommendations • Perception that messages are: • offensive, disturbing, boring, stale, preachy, confusing, irritating, misleading, irrelevant, uninformative, useless, unbelievable, or unmotivating. From Atkin, C. 2001. Impact of Public Service Advertising: Research Evidence and Effective Strategies. Project conducted for Kaiser Family Foundation.
3. Boomerang Effects • Alarming statistics or portrayals of misbehaviours may normalize behaviour • Portraying behaviour as risky may appeal to risk-takers • Forbidden fruit might sell the fruit • Highly threatening appeals may backfire without a strong efficacy component • Exaggerated claims may undermine credibility • Emphasis on negative outcomes may produce desensitization • Audiences may shift problems. For example, if teenage drivers are convinced that safety belts will protect them, they may drive faster . From Atkin, C. 2001. Impact of Public Service Advertising: Research Evidence and Effective Strategies. Project conducted for Kaiser Family Foundation.
4. Temptations • Regarding audience as ignorant or misguided • Being extremist (promoting behaviours that are unpalatable to audience) • Being too politically correct • Seeking to impress colleagues • Emphasizing fancy design over solid content
5. Lack of attention to proven planning principles • Many campaigns simply do not follow good campaign planning and design procedures that are known to be the absolute minimum requirements for a successful campaign.
5. Lack of attention to planning principles con’t • 2000 study of 50 published nutrition and/or physical activity social marketing campaigns. • Examined: • Goals and reporting on goals • Planning and background gathering techniques • Use of behavioural theory • Identification of target audiences • Audience analysis and segmentation strategies • Levels of intervention • Channel selection • Formative and summative evaluation • Alcalay, R. & Bell, R. Promoting Nutrition and Physical Activity Through Social Marketing: Current Practices and Recommendations. June 2000. For the Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Section of California Department of Health Services. Available from Center for Advanced Studies in Nutrition and Social Marketing.
5. Lack of attention to planning principles con’t • Fewer than 1/3 of campaigns expressed goals in measurable terms. • Goals were rarely formulated on the basis of data descriptive of target audiences. • Many campaigns did not mention any theory what-so-ever. • Audience segmentation strategies were primarily based on demographics (usually age) and only occasionally made use of psychological and lifestyle principles.
5. Lack of attention to planning principles con’t • Only a minority of campaigns conducted any consumer research and often that research was not described. • Individual behaviours were more likely to be the focus of change efforts than family practices and/or community norms/activities. • More attention should be paid to setting realistic, specific and measurable objectives.
5. Lack of attention to planning principles con’t • Social marketing concepts should become more central to campaigns, which often mention this framework but do not integrate it into planning. • Behavioural theories should be more actively applied to campaign designs.
5. Lack of attention to planning principles con’t • Audience segmentation and research should be more central to the planning of campaigns. • Communication strategies should be formulated based on better information about target audiences’ communication patterns. • Better understanding of message design decisions is needed. • A major thrust of campaigns should be altering the social and physical environment. • Other researchers have drawn similar conclusions.