The Mongols and The Changes in the World Chapters 14 and 15 AP World History Mr. Bartula
1000-1350: The Age of the Nomadic Empires • A period in which the Eastern Hemisphere became more tightly integrated than ever before. • The primary reason for this integration was the establishment of trans-regional empires by nomadic groups like the Seljuk Turks and the Mongols • As a result, long distance travel on a large scale became possible.
1000-1350: The Age of the Nomadic Empires • Other factors encouraging this integration: • The expansion of Islam (Dar al’Islam). • India’s continuing economic power (but cultural decline) • Such conflicts as the Crusades and the Reconquista exposed Europeans to the benefits of long distance trade and other contact.
The Mongols: Introduction • The Mongols probably did more to change the course of world history in a shorter period of time than any other group of people in the 600-1450 period. • Their conquests ushered in a period of frequent and extended international contact.
The Mongols: Introduction • The Mongols have generally been cast in a negative light as brutal conquerors. • Since the Mongols left few records of their own, most of what we have comes from conquered peoples or enemies. • Europeans, who had fewer contacts with the Mongols, generally had a more favorable view of them. Many Europeans saw the Mongols as potential allies against the Muslims.
The Mongols’ Early History • Pastoral nomadic people living in Central Asia. • Disunited tribes who regularly fought each other • Polytheistic and animistic religion
Chinggis Khan • “The greatest happiness is to vanquish your enemies, to chase them before you, to rob them of their wealth, to see those dear to them bathed in tears, to clasp to your bosom their wives and daughters.”
Chinggis Khan • “Be of one mind and one faith, that you may conquer your enemies and lead long and happy lives.” (to his army) • “With Heaven’s aid I have conquered for you a huge empire. But my life was too short to achieve the conquest of the world. That is left for you.” (to his sons on his deathbed)
Chinggis Khan 1162-1227 • Son of a Mongol chieftain, originally named Temujin. • Omens at birth indicated he would be a mighty warrior • At age 13, he was betrothed to Bortei (14), daughter of another Mongol chieftain. • His father was murdered by another clan, and Temujin swore vengeance.
His rise to power • Rejected as leader of his tribe, Temujin and his family were abandoned and left alone on the plains. Temujin swore vengeance. • Temujin ruled his family with an iron will, killing his younger brother when he caught him stealing food. • Temujin’s reputation as a stern and fierce leader spread among the Mongols.
His rise to power • Taken prisoner on a hunting trip, Temujin killed his guards and escaped, increasing his reputation for bravery and ferocity. • At age 17 he married Bortei. Her father gave him a rare black sable skin as a present. This became his symbol. • Shortly after, Temujin’s father’s tribe begged him to become their chieftain, and he issued a call for all Mongols to unite under his leadership.
Temujin Takes Power • In 1183 Temujin was declared Great Khan of the Mongols and renamed Chinggis: “precious warrior” or “spirit of light.” • Chinggis wanted to break down tribal identities and create a unified Mongol state • Chinggis organized the Mongol army into decimal units (100, 1000, 10000) and sent orders through hand signals.
Mongol Cavalry • The Mongol army could cover immense distances at spectacular speeds. • Soldiers carried dried meat and powdered yak’s milk as provisions • At times they would nick their horse’s necks and drink the blood while at full gallop.
Mongol Fighting Tactics • The Mongols prized their horses for being fast and flexible, allowing them to strike hard and then disappear. • The Mongols developed a composite bow which could be fired on horseback with a range of 350 yards. • The Mongols developed leather and wooden saddles and stirrups for longer and more comfortable journeys.
Chinggis and His Conquests • Chinggis Khan’s ruthlessness and ferocity were well known, and indeed, he would exterminate entire cities which opposed him. Individuals who became his enemies were treated the same way. • However, he always gave cities and regions the chance to surrender first, and if they did so, he was merciful. • Chinggis was a master of the feigned withdrawal: he would pretend to retreat, drawing his enemies after him, then quickly surround them.
Chinggis and His Conquests • Chinggis led two successful campaigns against northern China. • After two Mongol merchants were killed by a Central Asian ruler for being insolent, Chinggis launched a major invasion in 1219. • After several years of devastating conflict, all of Central Asia was brought under Mongol control.
The Death of Chinggis Khan • Shortly after the conquest of Central Asia, Chinggis was killed in a hunting accident. • His body was buried in a secret location somewhere in Mongolia.
Chinggis’ Legacy • The four most significant legacies of Chinggis Khan are: • his tolerance of many religions • his creation of the Mongols' first script (written language) • his support for trade and crafts • his creation of a legal code specific to the Mongols' pastoral- nomadic way of life • Recent DNA studies indicate that 1 out of every 12 men alive today may be a descendant of Chinggis Khan
The Mongols After Chinggis’ Death • Chinggis’ sons and grandsons divided and expanded the Mongol Empire. There were four major Khanates: • The Great Khanate: Mongolia and China • The Kipchak Khanate (Golden Horde): Russia • The Ilkhanate: Persia and the Middle East • The Chagatai Khanate: Central Asia • By maintaining law and order, the Mongols instituted the “Pax Mongolica” or Mongolian Peace.
The Mongols After Chinggis’ Death • The Mongols continued to practice religious toleration • A postal system for sending messages was established • Trade and commerce were encouraged, trade routes were kept open and guarded by Mongol soldiers
Batu Khan (grandson) invaded Russia between 1236-1242. The capital of Kiev and many other Russian cities were destroyed, and the Russians reduced to peasants. Batu and his successors then invaded Eastern Europe and penetrated all the way to Vienna. The death of Ogadei Khan (son of Chinggis) caused the Mongols to retreat to Central Asia, never returning to Europe. Mongol Conquests After Chinggis’ Death
Mongol Conquests After Chinggis’ Death • Hulagu Khan (grandson) invaded the Middle East in 1256-57 and destroyed the Islamic heartland. • The Seljuk Turks, who had dominated Dar al’Islam, were permanently weakened. • In 1257 Baghdad was sacked and burned. The last Abbasid Caliph was chopped to pieces. • The Mongols destroyed many other Islamic cities before being stopped by the Mameluke Turks in Egypt.
The Mongols in China Until recently, most historians assumed that the Mongols’ impact on China (as well as the rest of their empire) was only negative. The Mongol conquest of China caused great loss of life The Mongols eliminated (temporarily) the Confucian examination system The Mongols distrusted the Chinese and placed them at the bottom of their hierarchy.
The Mongols in China • The Mongols did encourage trade and international contacts which were helpful to China • The Mongols also adapted or borrowed ideas from the Chinese for their governments. • The Mongols also patronized artists and scientists in China.
Kublai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty • Kublai Khan, grandson of Chinggis, became Great Khan in 1260 • By 1279 he had completely conquered the Southern Song and established the Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368. • His Chinese capital was established at Daidu (modern Beijing) • Kublai Khan preferred to use Chinese in his government, rather than having direct Mongol rule.
Kublai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty • The Mongols encouraged artisans, artists, and poets in China. • Chinese merchants, who had formerly had low status, were now favored by the Mongols. • The Mongols reopened and guarded trade routes and increased the supply of paper money in China and the rest of their empire. • The Mongols were religiously tolerant. Buddhists themselves, they allowed Muslims, Christians, and others to worship freely throughout their empire. • The Mongols established a vast road and communication system throughout China
Mongol Women • Mongol women were accustomed to a great deal of independence and freedom. • In China, Mongol women refused to accept footbinding. • This, and the open manner in which Chabi and other Mongol women lived, shocked the Chinese.
The Forbidden City • Kublai Khan’s palace complex in Daidu • Constructed in many different architectural styles to symbolize the multicultural nature of the empire. • Also contained a huge campground on which the Mongols would camp in yurts once or twice a year.
Mongol Collapse in China • Two failed invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281 • Kublai Khan gradually lost interest in life after the death of Chabi and retreated to the Forbidden City • Neo-Confucianists in China opposed the Mongols as foreign invaders • Mongol dislike for the Chinese was alienating. • After Kublai’s death in 1294 there were succession problems and economic decline. • Natural disasters (floods, earthquakes) increased in the early 1300s • The Yuan Dynasty was overthrown by the Ming Dynasty in 1368, and the Mongols were driven out of China.
The Fall of the Mongolian Khanates • Overexpansion meant the empire grew too large to be successfully governed. • Succession problems plagued the khanates. • Economic decline and rebellions also played a role. • By the late 1300s only the Kipchak Khanate or “Golden Horde” remained in place.
Timur-i-Lang: The Last Gasp of the Mongols 1336-1405 • Claimed to be a descendant of Chinggis Khan • Created large empire in Central Asia • Attempted but failed in the conquest of China • Patron of the arts, encouraged trade • Destructive, merciless, conqueror
Consequences of the Mongol Empire • Reopening of the trade routes between Europe and Asia increased trade and other contacts. • The destruction of Dar al’Islam and the weakening of the Seljuk Turks allowed the Ottoman Turks to move into the Middle East. • Russia was cut off from European contact. Princes from Moscow led the final revolt against the Mongols, and that city became the new Russian capital
Consequences of the Mongol Empire • The opening of the trade routes and encouragement of trade allowed bubonic plague to enter Europe. • The Ottoman Turks in the Middle East were more interested in military expansion than trade “Conquest Over Commerce.”
The World After the Mongols • The new Ming Dynasty in China was proud of the return to native Chinese rule. • To reinforce this pride, the Ming Emperor authorized voyages to the Indian Ocean to demonstrate Chinese power and to collect tribute. • The admiral in charge of the voyages was Zheng He.
Zheng He (Cheng Ho) 1371-1435 • Born a Muslim in southwest China • Captured and castrated by Ming soldiers at age 10 • Sent to Beijing to serve, with other eunuchs, in the emperor’s court • Highly intelligent and well educated • Intent on asserting China’s power in the world.
Zheng He’s treasure ships • Three and four masted ships were built by the Chinese as early as the 8th century. • The Song and Yuan Dynasties continued to build larger ships with compartments, holds for fresh water, and private cabins. • The Ming Dynasty introduced “treasure ships” 400 feet long, with nine masts, twelve sails, four decks, and room for hundreds of passengers and tons of cargo. • The ships were armed with small cannons.
The Seven Ming Voyages • 1405-07: 317 ships (60 treasure ships) 28,000 passengers. S.E. Asia, Malacca, India • 1407-09: 68 ships to India • 1409-11:48 ships to Malacca, Ceylon, India • 1413-15: 63 ships to Persian Gulf
The Seven Ming Voyages • 1417-19: Persian Gulf, Red Sea, East Coast of Africa • 1421-22: Red Sea, East Coast of Africa • 1431-33: 100 ships, 27,000 men. South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Red Sea