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OPERATIONS SECURITY (OPSEC)

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OPERATIONS SECURITY (OPSEC)

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  1. OPERATIONS SECURITY (OPSEC) ANNUAL REFRESHER TRAINING

  2. Following the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 the President declared a national emergency… Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld cautioned on the importance of maintaining OPSEC as DOD Forces take part in the world-wide effort to defeat international terrorism…

  3. WHAT IS OPSEC ? - OPSEC is a critical component of U.S. Military activities… - a process where one keeps routine indicators of one's capabilities, actions, and plans masked and away from prying eyes… - Maintaining the operations security of plans and gaining the fullest possible surprise are essential to maintaining freedom of action…

  4. THE ORIGIN OF OPSEC - There is nothing new about the principles underlying OPSEC. In fact, we can trace OPSEC practices back to the colonial days and the Revolutionary War. George Washington, our first president, was a known OPSEC practitioner. General Washington was quoted as saying, "Even minutiae should have a place in our collection, for things of a seemingly trifling nature, when enjoined with others of a more serious cast, may lead to valuable conclusion."

  5. THE ORIGIN OF OPSEC (con't) OPSEC, as a methodology, originated during the Vietnam conflict when a small group of individuals were assigned the mission of finding out how the enemy was obtaining advance information on certain combat operations in Southeast Asia. This team was established by the Commander -in-Chief, Pacific, and given the code name "PURPLE DRAGON."

  6. THE ORIGIN OF OPSEC (con't) It became apparent to the team that although traditional security and intelligence countermeasures programs existed, reliance solely upon them was insufficient to deny critical information to the enemy--especially information and indicators relating to intentions and capabilities. The group conceived and developed the methodology of analyzing U.S. operations from an adversarial viewpoint to find out how the information was obtained. The team then recommended corrective actions to local commanders. They were successful in what they did, and to name what they had done, they coined the term "operations security."

  7. THE INTELLIGENCE PUZZLE - Intelligence collection and analysis is very much like assembling a picture puzzle. - Intelligence collectors are fully aware of the importance of obtaining small bits of information (or "pieces" of a puzzle) from many sources and assembling them to form the overall picture. - Intelligence collectors use numerous methods and sources to develop pieces of the intelligence puzzle . Their collection methods range from sophisticated surveillance using highly technical electronic methods to simple visual observation of activities (these activities are referred to as "indicators").

  8. THE INTELLIGENCE PUZZLE (cont'd) Information may be collected by: - monitoring radio and telephone or email conversations… - analyzing telephone directories, financial or purchasing documents, position or "job" announcements… -travel documents, blueprints or drawings, distribution lists, shipping and receiving documents, even personal information or items found in the unclassified trash.

  9. PREMISE OF OPSEC The premise of OPSEC is that the accumulation of one or more elements of sensitive/unclassified information or data could damage national security by revealing classified information… GOAL OF OPSEC The goal of OPSEC, as a "countermeasures" program, is to deny potential adversaries information about capabilities and/or intentions by identifying, controlling and protecting generally unclassified evidence of the planning and execution of sensitive activities…

  10. OPSEC: A 5 STEP PROCESS 1. IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL INFORMATION TO BE PROTECTED. 2. THREAT ANALYSIS 3. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT 4. RISK ASSESSMENT 5. APPLICATION OF COUNTERMEASURES

  11. 1. IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL INFORMATION Basic to the OPSEC process is determining what information, if available to one or more adversaries, would harm an organization's ability to effectively carry out the operation or activity. This critical information constitutes the "core secrets" of the organization, i.e., the few nuggets of information that are central to the organization's mission or the specific activity. Critical information usually is, or should be, classified or least protected as sensitive unclassified information. Top Secret Top Secret

  12. 2. ANALYSIS OF THREATS Knowing who the adversaries are and what information they require to meet their objectives is essential in determining what information is truly critical to an organization's mission effectiveness. In any given situation, there is likely to be more than one adversary and each may be interested in different types of information. The adversary's ability to collect, process, analyze, and use information, i.e., the threat, must also be determined.

  13. 3. ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITIES Determining vulnerabilities involves analysis of how our operations and or activities are conducted. Activities must be viewed as the adversaries will view it, thereby providing the basis for understanding how a unit or organization really operates and what are the true, rather than the hypothetical, vulnerabilities.

  14. 4. ASSESSMENT OF RISKS Vulnerabilities and specific threats must be matched. Where the vulnerabilities are great and the adversary threat is evident, the risk of adversary exploitation is expected. Therefore, a high priority for protection needs to be assigned and corrective action taken. Where the vulnerability is slightand the adversary has a marginal collection capability, the priority should be low.

  15. 5. APPLICATION OF COUNTERMEASURES Countermeasures are developed to eliminate the vulnerabilities, threats, or utility of the information to the adversaries… The possible countermeasures should include alternatives that may vary in effectiveness and feasibility… Countermeasures may include anything that is likely to work in a particular situation…

  16. OPSEC: A 5 STEP PROCESS 1. IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL INFORMATION TO BE PROTECTED. 2. THREAT ANALYSIS 3. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT 4. RISK ASSESSMENT 5. APPLICATION OF COUNTERMEASURES

  17. The 3 Laws of OPSEC 1. If you don't know the threat, how do you know what to protect? 2. If you don't know what to protect, how do you know you are protecting it? 3. If you are not protecting it. . . .the adversary wins!

  18. The First Law of OPSEC If you don't know the threat, how do you know what to protect? If there were no threats to Military programs, activities, facilities, personnel, or information, there would be no need for gates, access control procedures, access clearances, and classification. However, DOD/DON recognizes that threats do exist--although specific threats may vary from site to site or program to program. Military personnel must be aware of the actual and postulated threats to our command and mission. In any given situation, there is likely to be more than one adversary, although each may be interested in different information. 1

  19. The Second Law of OPSEC If you don't know what to protect, how do you know you are protecting it? The "what" is the critical and sensitive, or target, information that adversaries require to meet their objectives. 2

  20. The Third Law of OPSEC If you are not protecting it (the critical and sensitive information), the adversary wins! OPSEC vulnerability assessments, can be conducted to determine whether or not critical information is vulnerable to exploitation. These assessments form a critical analysis of "what we do" and "how we do it" from the perspective of an adversary. Internal procedures and information sources are also used to determine whether there is an inadvertent release of sensitive information. 3

  21. OPSEC - AN ALL HANDS EVOLUTION Each of us must take a look at our own behavior, here are a few suggestions… - exercise caution when discussing work… - pay close attention to where you are and who may be listening… - take care when talking on the phone or using computer systems - the "door of potential compromise" is opened every time an non-secure phone line is in use inside a secure area… - only discuss classified information in authorized spaces with those having both the proper security clearance and "need to know"…

  22. REMEMBER ! - Even a seemingly benign piece of information, whether it be verbal or written, can be used by potential adversaries to target our people. - The one piece of harmless information you unwittingly give away could be the piece that "completes the puzzle".

  23. 10 RULES OF OPSEC DON’T: 1. discuss future destinations! 2. discuss future operations or missions ! 3. discuss dates and times of conducting an exercises ! 4. discuss readiness issues or numbers ! 5. discuss specific training equipment ! 6. discuss people's names and billets in conjunction with operations ! 7. speculate about future operations ! 8. spread rumors about operations ! 9. assume the enemy is not trying to collect information on you so he can kill you, he is ! DO: 10. be smart, and always think OPSEC when using email, or phone, or any other medium of INTEL transfer!

  24. OPSEC IN SUMMARY A process designed to disrupt or defeat the ability of foreign intelligence or other adversaries to exploit sensitive military activities or information and to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of such information.

  25. REFERENCES AND SOURCES - AR 530-1 - http://www.nv.doe.gov/ - http://www.weaponeeronline.com/ - http://www.13meu.usmc.mil/ - http://www.peleliu.navy.mil/ - http://www.smdc.army.mil/

  26. OPERATIONS SECURITY (OPSEC) 2003 ANNUAL REFRESHER TRAINING ANY QUESTIONS ?