Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
discovering neutrinos: from the earth...the sun... our sister galaxy... PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
discovering neutrinos: from the earth...the sun... our sister galaxy...

discovering neutrinos: from the earth...the sun... our sister galaxy...

93 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

discovering neutrinos: from the earth...the sun... our sister galaxy...

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. discovering neutrinos: from the earth...the sun... our sister galaxy... ...next a galactic center? L. R. Sulak CPPM Marseille and Boston University International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  2. …an experimenter’s tribute to Maury Shapiro... from Dumand & IMB... thru Super K ...and onto Antares today, the first of two talks L. R. Sulak CPPM Marseille and Boston University International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  3. ...homage to Maury, godfather to Dumand, IMB, & the legacy of detectors that followed ...even those still on their way for precocious support of neutrino astrophysics... water Cherenkov and acoustic detection techniques, proton decay & neutrino oscillation searches MS born the year of Einstein’s General Relativity...destined for physics off to Los Alamos in ’44, with all the greats, + Val Fitch Cosmic Ray Lab at Naval Research Lab...Navy funds my PhD stimulating water Č detection since ’76 study of Dumand inspiring young scientists for > 28 years when I met him International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  4. ...a retrospective on  detection by Cherenkov light in water, and a perspective for the next 4 years invention of technology: massive, pixellated, time and amplitude Dumand IMB evolution Kamioka to Super-K astro discoveries! terrestrial neutrinos confirmed IMB extra-terrestrial neutrinos...solar K extra-galactic neutrinos...Magellanic Cloud IMB & K particle physics! neutrino oscillation and mass yet to come? AGN & BZS neutrinos (Amanda) & Antares (IceCube & Km3) proton decay, CP violation (Megaton) International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  5. ...a personal commentary...evolution of neutrino astrophysics... Retrospective of 4 ring-imaging Cherenkov Detectors: muon telescope, prematurely terminated (with SSC), then reborn Dumand ’76-’93 0.1 km2  1 km3 7 countries, off Hawaii Antares ’05 8 countries, off France world’s largest calorimeters IMB ’81 10 kilotons 2k pms salt mine, Ohio Kamiokande ’83 3 kilotons 1k pms heavy metal mine, Japan Super-K ’96 50 kilotons 13k pms 2nd Kamioka site detectors color-coded throughout talks see other talks for details and other experiments: e.g. Goodman, Kuzmin, Mikheyev, Migneco, Postnov, Silvestri, Stanev...

  6. IMB 1981 2000 - 5” EMI pms, time & pe 25 Mev threshold reverse osmosis water, world’s purist water, > 50m International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  7. Kamiokande 1983: 1000 - 20 inch pms 40% photocathode coverage outer veto 7 MeV threshold, for sun 1 km underground...for sun = 2.7 km of water, Antares depth, 2x Amanda initially no timing, minimal water filtering remedied in Kamioka III, 1986 International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  8. Super-K 1996 half way up first filling inner detector: 11,000 20 inch pms outer detector (not visible): reconfigured IMB III 2,000 8 inch pms with wavelength-shifting light collectors

  9. Dumand (1987) : 7 - 15” photomultipliers in 17” Benthos spheres short prototype string deployment 1 week operation to 4.5 km depth International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  10. 14.5 m 350 m 40 km to shore 100 m Junction Box ~70 m Line anchor Antares (2004-6): 900 pms, 12 lines, 25 stories/line, 3 pms/story International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak Submarine links

  11. with Markov & Zheleznykh’s inspiration, ultra high energy neutrino signatures for Dumand (and successors) 1) long penetrating muon tracks, mostly with minimal light 2) short bright hadronic showers if vertex “nearby” signature, & light attenuation length, set spacing & size of light sensors “Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop,” 1976, LRS

  12. the challenge... reconstructing energy and direction of particle tracks using light intensity arrival time Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop, 1976, LRS

  13. Dumand array concept: ~ the same in Antares similar in IMB, Amanda... “Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop,” 1976

  14. the Dumand site: same distance to shore as Antares 4.8 km deep: atm  shielding 2x Antares, 4x Amanda ...we were conservative in ’76 “Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop,” 1976 International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics L. R. Sulak

  15. an optical module: photomultipler housing, precursor for Amanda, Antares without Benthos spheres, similar for IMB, then Kamioka and Super-K International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  16. Dumand concept: line deployment

  17. ...conclusion of Dumand ’76 Workshop: ...stage was set...for a massive “land-based” prototype...IMB

  18. ...when PDK impetus came, 10 kiloton prototype design study immersed hemispherical pms single photoelectrons (1/4 pe lsb) 2-scale “waveform digitization” 1 ns for directionality 0.1 ms, muon decay deadtimeless calibration LED ball, N2 laser, muon decay Cortez, Foster, Levi, LoSecco LRS: “Madison Meeting on Proton Stability,” D. Cline, ed., December 1978

  19. ...a 0.5 MeV muon track... what does it look like? LRS: Erice 1980, “Neutrino ’79,” Bergen & “FWOGU,” 1980

  20. ...why is timing so important? Cherenkov light is directiona ~ 1 ns resolution  few degrees LRS: Erice 1980, “Neutrino ’79,” Bergen & “FWOGU”, 1980

  21. IMB Status at Erice 1980: Proton decay detector details and First proposal of neutrino oscillation search over baseline of earth via up/down /e asymmetry critical in securing DOE funding LRS: also “FWOGU” 1980

  22. IMB I: after 1 year operation, 5% of pms crack ...reverse osmosis too clean IMB II: replace 5” EMI pms with 8” Hamamatsu pms... designed using IMB photoelectron tracing code IMB III: add wavelength shifting light collector plates

  23. IMB III (1983) 2000 - 8 inch pms and light collectors dry suit diver/physicist International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  24. IMB: best proton decay candidate...pm code = timing in color, 1 pe/slash International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  25. International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  26. Nucleon Lifetime Limits IMB: 45 decay modes mass is everything, MEGATON is needed McGrew 2003

  27. atm s: up-going , as well as contained events...red entry, yellow exit... International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  28. IMB: Do the neutrino-induced up-going muons point back to a source? Galactic Latitude Galactic Longitude …sun, moon, galactic center? with 496 IMB events, no ...with Super-K? no, see Shantanu Desai’s recent PhD too small! need Amanda, Antares, IceCube, Km3

  29. “Supersymmetry... has generated so many thousands of papers it must be correct” Shelly Glashow

  30. …at 07:35:35 UT…bam…b-bam bam bam…8 times in IMB …11 in Kamioka …an entire sun implodes, explodes...in 13 seconds

  31. Super Nova…all heavy elements are born....iodine, silver, gold... the night before 23 Feb > 4 hours after neutrino burst

  32. …each with a beautiful Cherenkov ring …all detectors hit at the same time…time encoded in color

  33. …with your eye at the vertex of the 3rd event... ...100 billion neutrinos per cm2

  34. SuperNova! Cover Story

  35. IMB “anomaly:” see only 75% of expected muon-neutrinos... ...but Kamioka found no muon anomaly (e.g.Kajita PhD ’86)...until ‘88

  36. conclusion... Technology driven by the science: pixelated, ring-imaging Cherenkov calorimetry...proven submersible, depth-tolerant pms and electronics single photoelectron operation pattern recognition and directionality Astro-neutrino physics discoveries: first physics beyond standard model neutrino mass and oscillation...most cited paper of all time first extra-terrestrial neutrinos, imaging sun with them first extra-galactic neutrinos – SN 1987A grand unification still the ultimate goal, ...and annihilations, high energy point sources etc. await discovery!

  37. …pursuing cosmic ray and neutrino astrophysics... Maury, on behalf of your experimental friends, and me, from Dumand, IMB, Super-K and Antares, we thank you for your seminal cosmic ray work and for your intellectural support of our experiments International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  38. International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  39. International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  40. International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  41. ...dedicated to you, the new generation of  astrophysicists... discovering neutrinos: from the earth...the sun... our sister galaxy... ...next a galactic center? L. R. Sulak CPPM Marseille and Boston University International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  42. …an experimenter’s view of technical details from Dumand & IMB... thru Super K ...and onto Antares today, the second of two talks L. R. Sulak CPPM Marseille and Boston University International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  43. ...a retrospective on  detection by Cherenkov light in water, and a perspective for the next 4 years  invention of technology: massive, pixellated, time, amplitude  IMB Dumand to Antares evolution Kamioka and Super-K astro discoveries!  terrestrial neutrinos confirmed IMB  extra-galactic neutrinos...Magellanic Cloud IMB & K extra-terrestrial neutrinos...solar K particle physics! neutrino oscillation and mass yet to come? AGN & BZS neutrinos Amanda, IceCube Silvestri Km3Migneco acoustic detection proton decay, CP violation Megaton

  44. Kamioka II 1987: with timing by U. Penn & Cortez, & Rn purification ...low energy electron-neutrino events point back to the sun! ...with hi statistics, Super-K sees only 47% of expected solar model flux 22,400 solar neutrino events 15 events/day Direction cosine to the sun

  45. pointing neutrinos from the peak back to find their origin... …Kamioka and Super-K “see” the sun…a neutrino heliograph from Svoboda

  46. ...but tubes from Kamioka not tested at Super-K depth!!! International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  47. Super-K II (2003): a typical muon-neutrino event ...in time with beam pulse from KEK accelerator 300 km away ...sharp ring edges characteristic of a muon track

  48. typical electron track...fuzzy at edges International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  49. International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

  50. but 30% of muon neutrinos missing...those coming up through the earth ...six other different samples of neutrino data behave similarly International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak