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EARTH MATERIALS EQ:What materials compose the Earth?

CLASSROOM UNSQUARED. EARTH MATERIALS EQ:What materials compose the Earth?. Leave no Tern Unstoned!. Ouch. TERN. Earth Material ’ s Chemistry. Naturally-occurring elements and compounds are called minerals .

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EARTH MATERIALS EQ:What materials compose the Earth?

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  1. CLASSROOM UNSQUARED EARTH MATERIALSEQ:What materials compose the Earth?

  2. Leave no Tern Unstoned! Ouch TERN

  3. Earth Material’s Chemistry Naturally-occurring elements and compounds are called minerals. Naturally occurring mixtures of minerals, large deposits of single minerals, or organic materials are called rocks.

  4. Properties of Minerals Inorganic Crystalline or amorphous Chemical composition Luster (metallic or nonmetallic) Color Hardness (1-10 Moh’s scale) Streak (color of powdered mineral) Specific Gravity Special – magnetic, reacts with acid, ore

  5. Silicates • Quartz group (SiO2) Ex. agate, jasper, chert, amethyst, opal • Olivine (Mg,Fe,Mn,Ni)2SiO4 • Pyroxene (various -Si2O6 compounds, mostly Fe and Mg) • Amphibole (various –Si8O22 compounds) • Feldspar (various –Si3O8 compounds, mostly Ca, Na, K) • Garnet (various –SiO4 compounds) • Mica (various –AlSi3O10 compounds) • Native elements Ex. Cu, Ag, Au, S, C (diamond or graphite) • Sulfides Ex. FeS2 pyrite, PbS galena • Oxides Ex. MagnetiteFe3O4, cuprite Cu2O, hematite Fe2O3 • Halides Ex. NaCl Halite • Carbonates Ex. CaCO3 calcite, limestone or azurite Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 • Sulfates Ex. CaSO4.2H2O gypsum • Phosphates ( -PO4 compounds) Mineralogy HELP…THIS IS BORINGGGGGGGGG !! STILL BORING !!!!!!!!!!

  6. Rocks (Petrology) Types: Igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary Varying chemistry (minerals: natural compounds) Varying textures Crystalline Foliated Clastic Varying structures Strata Massive Cross-cutting Varying ages (relative and absolute age-dating) Sedimentary: when deposited Igneous: age starts when freezes Metamorphic: when altered by heat/pressure

  7. Granite (4 minerals) Rock Texture: CrystallineThin Sections: Dolomite (( Ca, Mg) CO3) Igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary

  8. Phyllite Schist Rock Texture: FoliatedThin Sections: Metamorphic

  9. Sandstone (SiO2 -quartz) Rock Texture: ClasticThin Sections: Shale (quartz + clay minerals) Sedimentary

  10. Strata (layers, bedding) • Sedimentary Rock Structures

  11. Massive Igneous or sometimes Sedimentary Structure

  12. Deformed strata or foliation Sedimentary or Metamorphic Structure

  13. What are some online resources? http://teacherfriendlyguide.org http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Home.jsp http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/index.html http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0610/es0610page02.cfm

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