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CLASSROOM UNSQUARED. EARTH MATERIALS EQ:What materials compose the Earth?. Leave no Tern Unstoned!. Ouch. TERN. Earth Material ’ s Chemistry. Naturally-occurring elements and compounds are called minerals .
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CLASSROOM UNSQUARED EARTH MATERIALSEQ:What materials compose the Earth?
Leave no Tern Unstoned! Ouch TERN
Earth Material’s Chemistry Naturally-occurring elements and compounds are called minerals. Naturally occurring mixtures of minerals, large deposits of single minerals, or organic materials are called rocks.
Properties of Minerals Inorganic Crystalline or amorphous Chemical composition Luster (metallic or nonmetallic) Color Hardness (1-10 Moh’s scale) Streak (color of powdered mineral) Specific Gravity Special – magnetic, reacts with acid, ore
Silicates • Quartz group (SiO2) Ex. agate, jasper, chert, amethyst, opal • Olivine (Mg,Fe,Mn,Ni)2SiO4 • Pyroxene (various -Si2O6 compounds, mostly Fe and Mg) • Amphibole (various –Si8O22 compounds) • Feldspar (various –Si3O8 compounds, mostly Ca, Na, K) • Garnet (various –SiO4 compounds) • Mica (various –AlSi3O10 compounds) • Native elements Ex. Cu, Ag, Au, S, C (diamond or graphite) • Sulfides Ex. FeS2 pyrite, PbS galena • Oxides Ex. MagnetiteFe3O4, cuprite Cu2O, hematite Fe2O3 • Halides Ex. NaCl Halite • Carbonates Ex. CaCO3 calcite, limestone or azurite Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 • Sulfates Ex. CaSO4.2H2O gypsum • Phosphates ( -PO4 compounds) Mineralogy HELP…THIS IS BORINGGGGGGGGG !! STILL BORING !!!!!!!!!!
Rocks (Petrology) Types: Igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary Varying chemistry (minerals: natural compounds) Varying textures Crystalline Foliated Clastic Varying structures Strata Massive Cross-cutting Varying ages (relative and absolute age-dating) Sedimentary: when deposited Igneous: age starts when freezes Metamorphic: when altered by heat/pressure
Granite (4 minerals) Rock Texture: CrystallineThin Sections: Dolomite (( Ca, Mg) CO3) Igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary
Phyllite Schist Rock Texture: FoliatedThin Sections: Metamorphic
Sandstone (SiO2 -quartz) Rock Texture: ClasticThin Sections: Shale (quartz + clay minerals) Sedimentary
Strata (layers, bedding) • Sedimentary Rock Structures
Massive Igneous or sometimes Sedimentary Structure
Deformed strata or foliation Sedimentary or Metamorphic Structure
What are some online resources? http://teacherfriendlyguide.org http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Home.jsp http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/index.html http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0610/es0610page02.cfm