I.M. Doctor, M.D. My Office My City, State COMMON WINTER INJURIES(AND HOW TO PREVENT THEM) I.M. Doctor M.D.Office City, State
The information in this presentation was provided to the presenter by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and may be modified. Endorsement of this presentation by the AAOS is not implied or inferred. Thank you to A. Herbert Alexander, MD for his significant contributions to the content of this presentation.
Winter Sports Injuries • Orthopaedic surgeons • Specific injuries • What they are • How they occur • How to avoid them • General precautions • Safety gear • Conditioning • Instruction
What is an orthopaedic surgeon? • MD who specializes in treatment and health maintenance of musculoskeletal system (bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, tendons, cartilage and spine)
What is an orthopaedic surgeon? • The expert in treating the musculoskeletal system • The expert in maintaining musculoskeletal health
Educating an Orthopaedic Surgeon • College • Medical School • Internship • Orthopaedic Residency • Fellowship (optional) • 2 Years Practice TOTAL 4 4 1 4 (1) 2 16 years!
What do orthopaedic surgeons do? • Diagnose • Treat • Medication • Physical Therapy • Exercise • Brace • Surgery • Prevent
Snow Skiing • More than 131,000 injuries in 2007 • Cost U.S. more than $4 billion
Snowboarding • 149,000 injuries in 2007
Ice Hockey and Ice Skating • 47,600 ice hockey injuries in 2007 • 58,400 ice skating injuries in 2007
Sledding • More than 106,900 injuries in 2007 • Majority of injuries happen to children aged 14 and under
Sports Injuries • Common Winter Sport-Related Injuries • Head injuries • Shoulder dislocation or fracture • Elbow injuries • Hand or finger injuries • Broken legs • Knee injuries • Ankle injuries
Head Injuries • 10% of winter sport injuries are head injuries • Protect your head by wearing a helmet!
Shoulder Injuries • Glenoid • Humeral head Reproduced with permission from Bernstein J, Blazar PE, Campbell JT, et al: Anatomy, in Bernstein J (ed): Musculoskeletal Medicine. Rosemont, IL American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2003
Shoulder Injuries: Dislocation Normal Dislocated
Shoulder Injuries: Acromioclavicular Dislocation AC joint IllustrationReproduced with permission from Bernstein J, Blazar PE, Campbell JT, et al: Anatomy, in Bernstein J (ed): Musculoskeletal Medicine. Rosemont, IL American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2003 18
Shoulder Injuries: Clavicle Fracture Normal Fracture
Elbow Injuries: Radial Head Fracture • Signs and Symptoms: • Pain on the outside of the elbow • Swelling in the elbow joint • Difficulty in bending or straightening the elbow accompanied by pain • Inability or difficulty in turning the forearm (palm up to palm down or vice versa)
Hand and Finger Injuries:Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tear • “Gamekeeper’s thumb” • Ski pole-related
Knee Injuries • Bruises • Sprains • PCL • MCL • LCL Illustration reproduced with permission from The Body Almanac, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2003
Knee Injuries:ACL Injury • Direct blow to knee • Non-contact injury, with foot plant • Landing on straight leg • Making abrupt stops • “Back seat” skiing
Knee Injuries:ACL Tear • Injury may require surgery • Rehabilitation following surgery • Return to sports when strength, balance, and coordination are normal
Knee Injuries: Meniscus Tear Normal meniscus Torn meniscus
Broken Legs: Tibial Fracture • Common in winter sports, particularly skiing • Can usually be treated without surgery
Treatment • Common in winter sports, particularly skiing • Can usually be treated without surgery
Inability to play Decreased ability to play Visible deformity Severe pain When to See the Doctor
R.I.C.E. – Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation Modify athletic activity Cooperation and communication between patient, parents, coaches, and physician Treatment
Preventing Winter Sports Injuries • General sports conditioning • Warm up and stretch before engaging in activity • Safety gear and skilled instruction • Snow skiing • Snowboarding • Sledding
Preventing Sports Injuries • Jump box • Half squats
Preventing Sports Injuries • Balance board • Aerobic exercise
Preventing Sports Injuries Warming up and stretching are two separate steps!
Marching Walk in place Mimic the sport Preventing Sports Injuries Warm up:
You should NOT feel pain Hold stretch 30 seconds Relax into the stretch Preventing Sports Injuries Stretching:
Know and abide by rules Using proper equipment Receive expert instruction Pay attention to fatigue Preventing Sports Injuries
Wear appropriate protective gear Know how to use equipment Never “play through pain” Preventing Sports Injuries
Preventing Sports Injuries: How to Fall Hands together, forward, over skis Skis together Weight forward FALL, don’t fight it!
Preventing Injuries: Sledding • Adult supervision • Safe sled paths • Helmets
Preventing Injuries: Sledding Don’t Do Designated areas only No public streets No sledding on plastic sheets
Environmental Injuries Injury due to cold Dehydration Sunburn
Environmental Injuries • Wear proper eye wear • Goggles • Sunglasses • UV protection • Visual clarity • Different lighting/different lenses
Understand the activity Learn the skills properly Use appropriate equipment Wear protective gear Warm up and stretch See your physician if you’re injured Rules to Play by
Resources American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 6300 N. River Road Rosemont, IL 60018 orthoinfo.org
Winter Sports Injuries What are your questions and concerns?