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Five Reasons For European Exploration. To find a new passage to the Far East for trade To find gold, silver, precious gems, and other valuables To claim new lands for their countries To convert people to Christianity For adventure. Spanish Colonization.
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Five Reasons For European Exploration • To find a new passage to the Far East for trade • To find gold, silver, precious gems, and other valuables • To claim new lands for their countries • To convert people to Christianity • For adventure
Spanish Colonization • First Europeans to explore southern and western United States • 1565 St Augustine founded; first permanent European settlement in America • Santa Fe was established in 1610 • Spain maintained an empire in the New World, but did not achieve cultural assimilation of the natives.
Growing Colonization Eastern North America in 1650 (p. 49)
New France- Souls and Furs • Quebec established in 1608; New France was a fur trading enterprise • French traders set off a series of Indian wars over the fur market, but did not impose forced labor
New Netherland & Commerce • Dutch were interested in commerce over religious conversion • The West India Company founded New Amsterdam in 1612; The company also gave land grants to wealthy Dutchmen. • The Dutch quickly surrendered the rule of New Amsterdam to the English in 1664 (The W.I.Co. was more interested in Brazil and Africa
First English Model-Tobacco & Settlers • 1606 King James I gave merchants the land between North Carolina and New York to “exploit” • 1607 the Virginia Company established Jamestown for trade, not settlement
Jamestown • Life was Harsh- no gold and little food; harsh treatment from the natives (Powhatan threatened war) • Tobacco became the economic basis for Jamestown • Settlement was encouraged by land grants, a court system and a representative government
Diagram showing Tobacco production
Religion in the English tobacco colonies • Church of England was established in Virginia • King Charles gave land bordering the Chesapeake to Lord Baltimore, a Catholic. His land, Maryland, began in 1634. • The Toleration Act , 1649, granted religious freedom to all Christians
Those Enslaved • Migrants to Virginia and Maryland were indentured servants • Africans were not legally enslaved, but served their masters for life • In 1660 Chesapeake legislatures began to lower the status of Africans; slavery became a permanent and heredity condition
Puritan New England • New England was different from other European settlements. • The Pilgrims, Puritans who were separatists from England’s Anglican Church, sailed here in the Mayflower in 1620 • Pilgrims created the Mayflower compact, a covenant for religious and political autonomy & the first constitution in North America • Established Plymouth Colony
Refuge in America • 1630 John Winthrop & 900 puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony • In the next ten years 10,000 puritans migrated to Massachusetts. • Roger Williams founded Rhode Island. Anne Hutchinson joined him in 1637. • 1636 Thomas Hooker established Hartford, Connecticut