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Stars

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  1. Stars Ch. 29, page 830

  2. Observe the Sun’s Rotation • Do not Look directly at the sun with your naked eye or through the telescope. • Get a clean sheet of paper and a pencil • Place your paper under the image from the telescope. Trace the outline of the Sun on your paper. • Trace the sunspots that appear as dark areas on the Sun’s image Repeat this step several times over the next week or two. • Measure the movement of the sunspots. • Calculate the Sun’s period of rotation. • Determine what is the estimated rate of motion of the largest sunspot.

  3. Dec. 4, 2013http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/sunspots/ • Calculate the Sun’s period of rotation. • Determine what is the estimated rate of motion of the largest sunspot.

  4. Ch. 29.1 The Sun, p. 830 • Photosphere • Chromosphere • Corona • Prominence • Solar Wind • Sunspot • Solar Flare • Fission • Fusion

  5. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • 109 Earths diameter • 10 Jupitersdiameter

  6. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • 330,000 x Earth Mass • 1,048 x Jupiter’s Mass • 99% of Solar System’s mass • 4 trillion trillion 150 watt light bulb/sec • Interior density is 1.50 x 105 kg/m3 (a pair of dice would weigh 1 kg)

  7. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • 109 Earths diameter • 10 Jupiters diameter • 330,000 x Earth Mass • 1,048 x Jupiter’s Mass • 4 trillion trillion 150 watt light bulb/sec • 99% of Solar System’s mass • Interior density is 1.50 x 105 kg/m3 (a pair of dice would weigh 1 kg)

  8. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • 1 x 107 K interior • Plasma • No lead core • 1.35 kilowatt/m2 on earth’s surface vs 4 trillion trillion 150 watt light bulbs / sec on the sun

  9. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Photosphere • 400 km thick • 5800 K • Chromosphere • 2500 km thick • 30,000 K Corona

  10. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Corona • Several million miles from Chromosphere • Strongest x-ray emissions • 1 million to 2 million K

  11. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Solar Wind is charged particles and cause Aurora Borealis • Sunspots due to magnetic field pulling gases together and cooling them

  12. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Solar Flares: violent eruptions of particles • Solar Prominences: an arc of gas ejected from the chromosphere or gas that condenses on the inner corona and falls back to sun • Noah! Be Quiet!

  13. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Fission: breaking apart atoms that releases particles and energy Fission is almost the same as the word “Division”. Noah you’re AWESOME!

  14. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Fission: breaking apart atoms that releases particles and energy

  15. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Fusion: two nuclei with low masses are combined to form one nucleus of larger mass. They usually repel each other due to the identical charges, but at very hot temperatures in the sun they are moving fast enough to overcome this barrier

  16. Ch. 29.1 The Sun Bellringer: answer 3 and one more for Ex. Cr. • How many Jupiters or Earths can be lined up at the diameter of the sun? • How is energy produced in the sun? • How hot is the interior of the sun in Kelvin? • Name one of the three outer layers of the sun? • Describe one of the following: sunspot, solar flare, or solar wind.

  17. Ch. 29.1 The Sun

  18. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Light waves • Gas particles absorb the energy of light and they get energized by the light hitting them so that they emit specific wavelengths of light

  19. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Continuous Spectrum: A spectrum that has no breaks in it, such as the one produced when light is shown through an ordinary prism

  20. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Emission Spectrum: A spectrum produced by a non-compressed gas contains bright lines at specific wavelengths. These are emission lines of specific elements

  21. Ch. 29.1 The Sun • Absorption Spectrum: A spectrum produced by the sun caused by different chemical elements that absorb light at specific wavelengths. The dark absorption lines are the same as the emission lines for that element.

  22. Ch. 29.1 The Sun

  23. Ch. 29.1 The Sun Interior of the Sun website How and where do the nuclear reactions take place? http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/NatSci102/lectures/suninterior.htm

  24. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars • Absolute magnitude • Apparent Magnitude • Binary star • Constellation • Parallax • Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (H-R) • Doppler Shifts • Wavelength • Spectral Shift • Light Year • Parsec • Luminosity • Density • Main Sequence (of stars)

  25. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars • Luminosity: how much power the sun gives off per second. Measured in watts. • What is the Sun’s luminosity? 3.85 x 1024 We measure the luminosity of stars based on a distance of 10 parsecs. Parsec = a parsec (pc) is equal to 3.26 light years (ly) or 3.086 x 1013 km One light year .26

  26. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars • Absolute magnitude (a standard measurement if the star was 10 pc away) • Apparent Magnitude (what we see)

  27. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (H-R) Diagram Page 844

  28. Most stars are currently classified under the Morgan–Keenan (MKK) system using the letters O, B, A, F, G, K, and M, a sequence from hottest (O) to coolest (M). Useful mnemonic for remembering the spectral type letters is:“Oh, Boy, An F Grade Kills Me". Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (H-R) Diagram Page 844

  29. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars

  30. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Constellations: groups of the brightest stars named after mythological characters, animals, and everyday objects. Watch the interactive night sky map here: http://www.astroviewer.com/interactive-night-sky-map.php

  31. The Big and Little Dippers and the North Star Big Dipper (Ursa Major) Little Dipper (Ursa Minor) A binary star: two stars that are gravitationally bound together and orbit a common center between their masses http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Orbit5.gif

  32. Constellations Orion

  33. Pleides http://www.astroviewer.com/interactive-night-sky-map.php

  34. Casseiopia

  35. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Three Easy Measurements of Stars • Doppler Effect (just like the shift of sound as it “comes and goes”): as a star moves back and forth against the background of the universe shifts toward the blue when moving toward us and toward the red when moving away from us. • Parallax (Lab) • Spectral Lines (Lab)

  36. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Three Easy Measurements of Stars • Doppler Effect (just like the shift of sound as it “comes and goes”) • Parallax (Lab) The apparent shift in position of a star caused by the motion of the observer. The closer the star the greater the Parallax shift • Spectral Lines (Lab)

  37. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Three Easy Measurements of Stars • Doppler Effect (just like the shift of sound as it “comes and goes”) • Parallax (Lab) • Spectral Lines (Lab) Emission lines on a continuous spectrum or absorption spectrum which indicate which elements are present on a star.

  38. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Three Easy Measurements of Stars • Doppler Effect (just like the shift of sound as it “comes and goes”)

  39. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Three Easy Measurements of Stars • Parallax: the apparent shift in the position of a star caused by the motion of the observer

  40. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Constellations Watch the interactive night sky map here: http://www.astroviewer.com/interactive-night-sky-map.php

  41. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Constellations: Watch the interactive night sky map here: http://www.astroviewer.com/interactive-night-sky-map.php

  42. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Constellations Watch the interactive night sky map here: http://www.astroviewer.com/interactive-night-sky-map.php

  43. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Constellations Watch the interactive night sky map here: http://www.astroviewer.com/interactive-night-sky-map.php

  44. Ch. 29.2 Measuring the Stars Binary stars are two stars that orbit around each other. One of the seven stars in the Big Dipper (Ursa Major) is actually a binary star. Star clusters are stars that orbit around each other. Pleides is a great example.