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Jobsite Safety. A Continuing Education Course Presentation By The Office Of Educational Facilities, Florida Department Of Education.
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Jobsite Safety A Continuing Education Course Presentation By The Office Of Educational Facilities, Florida Department Of Education
The Goal for this Jobsite Safety Course is to inform designers, contractors, code officials, facilities managers and capital budget officers about issues regarding the well being of construction personnel during building operations. Objectives for this course are provided here to assist decision makers in planning provisions for jobsite safety. 1. Make students aware of responsibilities to prevent jobsite incidents. 2. Inform students about applicable laws and regulations that require jobsite safety features. 3. Increase student awareness of the effects of a safe versus an unsafe construction site. 4. A notification to students regarding the need for construction safety programs. 5. Provide an overview of jobsite safety training, personal protective equipment, and applicable policies and procedures.
Who Is Responsible For Safety On Construction Sites? • According to, 29 CFR 1910.12 (a), “Each employer shall protect the employment and places of employment of each of his employees engaged in construction work by complying with the appropriate standards prescribed in this paragraph.” • According to, 29 CFR 1926.20 (a) (1) “…no contractor or subcontractor for any part of the contract work shall require any laborer or mechanic employed in the performance of the contract to work in surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to his health or safety.”
Note to Subpart B: All employers covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) are covered by these Part 1904 regulations. However, most employers do not have to keep OSHA injury and illness records unless OSHA or the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) informs them in writing that they must keep records. For example, employers with 10 or fewer employees and business establishments in certain industry classifications are partially exempt from keeping OSHA injury and illness records.
1904.1(a)(1) If your company had ten (10) or fewer employees at all times during the last calendar year, you do not need to keep OSHA injury and illness records unless OSHA or the BLS informs you in writing that you must keep records under § 1904.41 or § 1904.42. However, as required by § 1904.39, all employers covered by the OSH Act must report to OSHA any workplace incident that results in a fatality or the hospitalization of three or more employees. 1904.1(a)(2) If your company had more than ten (10) employees at any time during the last calendar year, you must keep OSHA injury and illness records unless your establishment is classified as a partially exempt industry under § 1904.2.
Can OSHA Visit My Site? • If the owner or employer refuses to permit an inspection then the safety inspector must leave according to 29 CFR 1903. • Once the owner or employer refuses inspection then the inspector must obtain an inspection warrant from a court of jurisdiction as per: Florida Statutes Chapter 933.
Employer Responsibilities According To 29 CFR 1926.20 • Provision of a safe work environment. • Provision of workplace safety training. • Provision of personal protective equipment. • First aid provisions are kept on site and trained staff available to use them. • Employers are responsible for fire protection and prevention. • Posted policies and procedures for dealing with incidents or accidents.
1926.21(a) General requirements. The Secretary of Labor shall, pursuant to section 107(f) of the Act, establish and supervise programs for the education and training of employers and employees in the recognition, avoidance and prevention of unsafe conditions in employments covered by the act. 1926.21(b) Employer responsibility. 1926.21(b)(1) The employer should avail himself of the safety and health training programs the Secretary provides. 1926.21(b)(2) The employer shall instruct each employee in the recognition and avoidance of unsafe conditions and the regulations applicable to his work environment to control or eliminate any hazards or other exposure to illness or injury. 1926.21(b)(3) Employees required to handle or use poisons, caustics, and other harmful substances shall be instructed regarding the safe handling and use, and be made aware of the potential hazards, personal hygiene, and personal protective measures required.
1926.21(b)(4) In job site areas where harmful plants or animals are present, employees who may be exposed shall be instructed regarding the potential hazards, and how to avoid injury, and the first aid procedures to be used in the event of injury. 1926.21(b)(5) Employees required to handle or use flammable liquids, gases, or toxic materials shall be instructed in the safe handling and use of these materials and made aware of the specific requirements contained in Subparts D, F, and other applicable subparts of this part. 1926.21(b)(6)(i) All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces shall be instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use of protective and emergency equipment required. The employer shall comply with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or potentially dangerous areas. 1926.21(b)(6)(ii) For purposes of paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section, "confined or enclosed space" means any space having a limited means of egress, which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or has an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Confined or enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels.
First aid services and provisions for medical care shall be made available by the employer for every employee covered by these regulations. Regulations prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained in Subpart D of this part.
Fire Protection & Prevention • 29 CFR 1926.24 “The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the jobsite throughout all phases of the construction, repair, alteration, or demolition work. The employer shall ensure the availability of fire protection and suppression equipment required by Subpart F of this part.”
(b) Water supply. 29 CFR 1926.150 (1) A temporary or permanent water supply, of sufficient volume, duration, and pressure, required to properly operate the firefighting equipment shall be made available as soon as combustible materials accumulate. (2) Where underground water mains are to be provided, they shall be installed, completed, and made available for use as soon as practicable. (c) Portable firefighting equipment. (1) Fire extinguishers and small hose lines. (i) A fire extinguisher,rated not less than 2A, shall be provided for each 3,000 square feet of the protected building area.
There are many staff considerations to be addressed for achievement of a healthy, safe and sanitary work environment. These are a few examples: Acceptable potable (drinking) water and toilet facilities. Adequate lighting for the tasks to be performed. Protection from excessive noise levels. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for possible work hazards. Training for all equipment used to perform on the job including power tools. Material Safety Data Sheets for all substances stored or used on the site. First-aid equipment and competent staff on site and available during working hours.
1926.51 (c) Toilets At Construction Jobsites. (1) Toilets shall be provided for employees according to the following table: Table D – 1 Number of Employees Minimum Number of Facilities 20 or Less 1 20 or More 1 toilet seat and 1 urinal per 40 workers 200 or More 1 toilet seat and 1 urinal per 50 workers (2) Under temporary field conditions, provisions shall be made to assure not less than one toilet facility is available. (3) Job sites not provided with a sanitary sewer, shall be provided with one of the following toilet facilities unless prohibited by local codes: (i) Privies (where their use will not contaminate ground or surface water); (ii) Chemical toilets; (iii) Recirculating toilets; (iv) Combustion toilets. (4) Mobile crews with transportation means are exempt.
Florida Building Code Section 3305 Sanitary facilities shall be provided during construction, remodeling or demolition activities in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Plumbing.
1926.52 Occupational Noise Exposure (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table D-2 of this section when measured on the A-scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response. (b) When employees are subjected to sound levels exceeding those listed in Table D-2 of this section, feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table, personal protective equipment as required in Subpart E, shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table. (c) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or less, it is to be considered continuous. (d)(1) In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values shown herein, a continuing, effective hearing conservation program shall be administered.
Table D-2 – Permissible Noise Exposures Duration per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response 8 90 6 92 4 95 3 97 2 100 1 ½ 102 1 105 ½ 110 ¼ or less 115
1926.56 Illumination (a) General.Construction areas, ramps, runways, corridors , offices, shops, and storage areas shall be lighted to not less than the minimum illumination intensities listed in Table D – 3 applies when any work is in progress:
Table D–3 Minimum Illumination Intensities In Foot-Candles Foot-Area of Operation Candles 5 General construction area lighting. 3 General construction areas, concrete placement, excavation and waste areas, accessways, active storage areas, loading platforms, refueling, and field maintenance areas. 5 Indoors: warehouses, corridors, hallways, and exitways. 5 Tunnels, shafts, & general underground work areas. (exception: minimum of 10 foot-candles is required at tunnel and shaft heading during drilling, mucking, and scaling. Bureau of Mines approved cap lights shall be acceptable for use in the tunnel heading. 10 General construction plant & shops (e.g., batch plants, screening plants, mechanical & electrical equipment rooms, carpenter shops, rigging lofts and active storerooms, barracks or living quarters, locker or dressing rooms, mess halls, & indoor toilets and workrooms). 30 First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices.
Which personal protective equipment is correct? • 29 CFR 1926, Subpart E specifies personal protective equipment for various types of hazards. • 29 CFR 1926.95 provides criteria for personal protective equipment decisions. • 29 CFR 1926.96 through 1926.107 specifies the type of personal protective equipment necessary for each type of hazard.
Insist On Approved Steel Toed Boots! 1926.96 Occupational Foot Protection Safety – toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements and specifications in American National Standard for Men’s Safety – Toe Footwear, Z41.1-1967.
1926.100 Head Protection (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head injury from impact, or from falling or flying objects, or from electrical shock and burns, shall be protected by protective helmets. (b) Helmets for the protection of employees against impact and penetration of falling and flying objects shall meet the specifications contained in American National Standards Institute, Z89.1-1969, Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection. (c) Helmets for the head protection of employees exposed to high voltage electrical shock and burns shall meet the specifications contained in American National Standards Institute, Z89.2-1971.
§1926.101 Hearing protection (a) Wherever it is not feasible to reduce the noise levels or duration of exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise Exposures, in §1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and used. (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or determined individually by competent persons. (c) Plain cotton is not an acceptable protective device.
1926.102 Eye and Face Protection (a) General. (1) Employees shall be provided with eye and face protection equipment when machines or operations present potential eye or face injury from physical, chemical, or radiation agents. (2) Eye and face protection equipment required by this Part shall meet the requirements specified in American National Standards Institute, Z87.1-1968, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection. (3) Employees whose vision requires the use of corrective lenses in spectacles, when required by this regulation to wear eye protection, shall be protected by goggles or spectacles of one of the following types: (i) Spectacles whose protective lenses provide optical correction; (ii) Goggles that can be worn over corrective spectacles without disturbing the adjustment of the spectacles; (iii) Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the protective lenses. continued
(4) Face and eye protection equipment shall be kept clean and in good repair. The use of this type of equipment with structural or optical defects shall be prohibited. (5) Table E-1 shall be used as a guide in the election of face and eye protection for the hazards and operations noted.
1926.103 Subpart E – Personal Protective & Life Saving Equipment Operation Hazards Recommended Protectors Acetylene Welding Sparks, flying particles 7, 8, 9 Chemical Handling Splash, acid burns, fumes 2,10 ( extreme exposure add 10 over 2 ) Chipping Flying particles 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7A, 8A Electric (Arc) Welding Sparks, Intense Rays, 9, 11(11 in combination with 4, 5, 6, in molten metal tinted lenses advisable) Furnace Operations Glare, heat, molten metal 7, 8, 9 (for severe exposure add 10) Grinding – Light Flying particles 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 Grinding – Heavy Flying particles 1, 3, 7A, 8A (for severe exposure add 10) Laboratory Chemical Splash, glass breakage 2 (10 when in combination with 4, 5, 6) Machining Flying particles 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 Molten Metals Heat, glare, sparks, splash 7, 8 (10 in combination with 4, 5, 6, in tinted lenses) Spot Welding Flying particles, sparks 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10
29 CFR 1926.24 The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout all phases of the construction, repair, alteration, or demolition work. The employer shall ensure the availability of the fire protection and suppression equipment required by Subpart F of this part.
§1926.150 Fire protection (a) (1) The employer shall be responsible for the development of a fire protection program to be followed throughout all phases of the construction and demolition work, and he shall provide for the firefighting equipment as ,specified in this subpart. As fire hazards occur, there shall be no delay in providing the necessary equipment. (2) Access to all available firefighting equipment shall be maintained at all times. (3) All firefighting equipment, provided by the employer, shall be conspicuously located. (4) All firefighting equipment shall be periodically inspected and maintained in operating condition. Defective equipment shall be immediately replaced. (5) As warranted by the project, the employer shall provide a trained and equipped firefighting organization (Fire Brigade) to assure adequate protection to life.
1926.150(b) Water supply. 1926.150(b)(1) A temporary or permanent water supply, of sufficient volume, duration, and pressure, required to properly operate the firefighting equipment shall be made available as soon as combustible materials accumulate. 1926.150(b)(2) Where underground water mains are to be provided, they shall be installed, completed, and made available for use as soon as practicable.
(c) Portable Fire Fighting Equipment (1) (i) A fire extinguisher, rated not less than 2A, shall be provided for each 3000 square feet of the protected building area, or major fraction thereof. Travel distance from any point of the protected area to the nearest fire extinguisher shall not exceed 100 feet. (ii) One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be substituted for a fire extinguisher having a 2A rating. (iii) A 1/2-inch diameter garden-type hose line, not to exceed 100 feet in length and equipped with a nozzle, may be substituted for a 2A-rated fire extinguisher, providing it is capable of discharging a minimum of 5 gallons per minute with a minimum hose stream range of 30 feet horizontally. The garden-type hose lines shall be mounted on conventional racks or reels. The number and location of hose racks or reels shall be such that at least one hose stream can be applied to all points in the area. (iv) One or more fire extinguishers, rated not less than 2A, shall be provided on each floor. In multistory buildings, at least one fire extinguisher shall be located adjacent to stairway.
1926.652(a) Protection of employees in excavations. 1926.652(a)(1) Each employee in an excavation shall be protected from cave-ins by an adequate protective system designed in accordance with paragraph (b) or (c) of this section except when: 1926.652(a)(1)(i) Excavations are made entirely in stable rock; or 1926.652(a)(1)(ii) Excavations are less than 5 feet (1.52 m) in depth and examination of the ground by a competent person provides no indication of a potential cave-in. 1926.652(a)(2) Protective systems shall have the capacity to resist without failure all loads that are intended or could reasonably be expected to be applied or transmitted to the system.
1926.652(b) Design of sloping and benching systems. The slopes and configurations of sloping and benching systems shall be selected and constructed by the employer or his designee and shall be in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (b)(1); or, in the alternative, paragraph (b)(2); or, in the alternative, paragraph (b)(3); or, in the alternative, paragraph (b)(4), as follows:1926.652(b)(1) Option (1) - Allowable configurations and slopes. 1926.652(b)(1)(i) Excavations shall be sloped at an angle not steeper than one and one-half horizontal to one vertical (34 degrees measured from the horizontal), unless the employer uses one of the other options listed below. 1926.652(b)(1)(ii) Slopes specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, shall be excavated to form configurations that are in accordance with the slopes shown for Type C soil in Appendix B to this subpart. 1926.652(b)(2) Option (2) - Determination of slopes and configurations using Appendices A and B. Maximum allowable slopes, and allowable configurations for sloping and benching systems, shall be determined in accordance with the conditions and requirements set forth in appendices A and B to this subpart.1926.652(b)(3) Option (3) - Designs using other tabulated data. 1926.652(b)(3)(i) Designs of sloping or benching systems shall be selected from and in accordance with tabulated data, such as tables and charts. 1926.652(b)(3)(ii) The tabulated data shall be in written form and shall include all of the following:..1926.652(b)(3)(ii)(A)
1926.652(b)(3)(ii)(A) Identification of the parameters that affect the selection of a sloping or benching system drawn from such data; 1926.652(b)(3)(ii)(B) Identification of the limits of use of the data, to include the magnitude and configuration of slopes determined to be safe; 1926.652(b)(3)(ii)(C) Explanatory information as may be necessary to aid the user in making a correct selection of a protective system from the data. 1926.652(b)(3)(iii) At least one copy of the tabulated data which identifies the registered professional engineer who approved the data, shall be maintained at the jobsite during construction of the protective system. After that time the data may be stored off the jobsite, but a copy of the data shall be made available to the Secretary of Labor upon request.
"Cemented soil" means a soil in which the particles are held together by a chemical agent, such as calcium carbonate, such that a hand-size sample cannot be crushed into powder or individual soil particles by finger pressure. "Cohesive soil" means clay (fine grained soil), or soil with a high clay content, which has cohesive strength. Cohesive soil does not crumble, can be excavated with vertical sideslopes, and is plastic when moist. Cohesive soil is hard to break up when dry, and exhibits significant cohesion when submerged. Cohesive soils include clayey silt, sandy clay, silty clay, clay and organic clay. "Dry soil" means soil that does not exhibit visible signs of moisture content. "Fissured" means a soil material that has a tendency to break along definite planes of fracture with little resistance, or a material that exhibits open cracks, such as tension cracks, in an exposed surface.
"Granular soil" means gravel, sand, or silt (coarse grained soil) with little or no clay content. Granular soil has no cohesive strength. Some moist granular soils exhibit apparent cohesion. Granular soil cannot be molded when moist and crumbles easily when dry. "Layered system" means two or more distinctly different soil or rock types arranged in layers. Micaceous seams or weakened planes in rock or shale are considered layered. "Moist soil" means a condition in which a soil looks and feels damp. Moist cohesive soil can easily be shaped into a ball and rolled into small diameter threads before crumbling. Moist granular soil that contains some cohesive material will exhibit signs of cohesion between particles. "Plastic" means a property of a soil which allows the soil to be deformed or molded without cracking, or appreciable volume change.
"Saturated soil" means a soil in which the voids are filled with water. Saturation does not require flow. Saturation, or near saturation, is necessary for the proper use of instruments such as a pocket penetrometer or sheer vane. "Soil classification system" means, for the purpose of this subpart, a method of categorizing soil and rock deposits in a hierarchy of Stable Rock, Type A, Type B, and Type C, in decreasing order of stability. The categories are determined based on an analysis of the properties and performance characteristics of the deposits and the characteristics of the deposits and the environmental conditions of exposure. "Stable rock" means natural solid mineral matter that can be excavated with vertical sides and remain intact while exposed. "Submerged soil" means soil which is underwater or is free seeping.
"Type A" means cohesive soils with an unconfined, compressive strength of 1.5 ton per square foot (tsf) (144 kPa) or greater. Examples of cohesive soils are: clay, silty clay, sandy clay, clay loam and, in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy clay loam. Cemented soils such as caliche and hardpan are also considered Type A. However, no soil is Type A if: (i) The soil is fissured; or (ii) The soil is subject to vibration from heavy traffic, pile driving, or similar effects; or (iii) The soil has been previously disturbed; or (iv) The soil is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) or greater; or (v) The material is subject to other factors that would require it to be classified as a less stable material.
"Type B" means: (i) Cohesive soil with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) but less than 1.5 tsf (144 kPa); or (ii) Granular cohesionless soils including: angular gravel (similar to crushed rock), silt, silt loam, sandy loam and, in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy clay loam. (iii) Previously disturbed soils except those which would otherwise be classed as Type C soil. (iv) Soil that meets the unconfined compressive strength or cementation requirements for Type A, but is fissured or subject to vibration; or (v) Dry rock that is not stable; or (vi) Material that is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a slope less steep than four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V), but only if the material would otherwise be classified as Type B.
"Type C" means: (i) Cohesive soil with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) or less; or (ii) Granular soils including gravel, sand, and loamy sand; or (iii) Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping; or (iv) Submerged rock that is not stable, or (v) Material in a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation or a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) or steeper. "Unconfined compressive strength" means the load per unit area at which a soil will fail in compression. It can be determined by laboratory testing, or estimated in the field using a pocket penetrometer, by thumb penetration tests, and other methods. "Wet soil" means soil that contains significantly more moisture than moist soil, but in such a range of values that cohesive material will slump or begin to flow when vibrated. Granular material that would exhibit cohesive properties when moist will lose those cohesive properties when wet.
"Unconfined compressive strength" means the load per unit area at which a soil will fail in compression. It can be determined by laboratory testing, or estimated in the field using a pocket penetrometer, by thumb penetration tests, and other methods. "Wet soil" means soil that contains significantly more moisture than moist soil, but in such a range of values that cohesive material will slump or begin to flow when vibrated. Granular material that would exhibit cohesive properties when moist will lose those cohesive properties when wet.
Soil or Rock Type Maximum Allowable Slopes (H:V)¹ For Excavations Less Than 20 Feet Deep³ Stable Rock Vertical (90°) Type A ¾:1 (53°) Type B 1:1 (45°) Type C 1 ½ :1 (34°) 1. Numbers shown in parentheses next to maximum allowable slopes are angles expressed in degrees from the horizontal. Angles have been rounded off. 2. A short-term maximum allowable slope of 1/2H:1V (63°) is allowed in excavations in Type A soil that are 12 feet (3.67 m) or less in depth. Short-term maximum allowable slopes for excavations greater than 12 feet (3.67 m) in depth shall be 3/4H:1V (53°). 3. Sloping or benching for excavations greater than 20 feet deep shall be designed by a registered professional engineer.
What is a safe working environment and how is it accomplished? • A safety officer is assigned to anticipate causes of accidents and minimize risks. • All employees are trained to deal with possible hazards of operations. • Scheduled and unscheduled inspections are made by qualified staff. • Policies and procedures are established to deal with emergencies. • See 29 CFR 1926.20 & 1926.21
What is jobsite safety training all about? • Personal protective equipment training. • Job equipment training (tools, machinery, etc…) • First aid training. • Training to document and record incidents and accidents. • Substance abuse detection and intervention training. • Policies and procedures training. • Hazardous materials training. • See 29 CFR 1926.21 for guidelines
Record keeping for incidents and accidents. • OSHA 300 Logs and OSHA 301 Incident Report forms are to retained for at least five (5) years following the end of the calendar year that these records cover. • OSHA 300 Logs must be updated to include new information concerning injuries or illnesses. 29 CFR 1904.33
Employers are responsible for first aid. • 29 CFR 1926.50, Employers must provide: Access to prompt medical attention. Access to proper first aid equipment. Posted emergency phone numbers. Ability to flush out corrosives from eyes or body. Policies and procedures for injuries or illnesses. Access to prompt emergency transport.
Policies & Procedures • Covering illnesses and injuries. • Covering when and who to notify. • Covering when and how to report. • Covering what, when and how to document. • Specifying locations for emergency equipment and communications. • Commitment to training for all staff to deal with emergencies. • All in accordance with 29 CFR 1926
What Is A Safety Plan? • Assign qualified staff responsibilities. • Establish emergency procedures. • Establish operational and emergency training. • Provide personal protective equipment where required by policy or regulations. • Set up frequent and random inspections to abate or resolve safety issues. • See 29 CFR 1926 for guidelines.