CARBON DIOXIDE-OXYGEN CYCLE General English 2 Lesson 3
Gills/ɡɪl/oneoftheorgansbehindtheheadofafishthatallowsittobreatheGills/ɡɪl/oneoftheorgansbehindtheheadofafishthatallowsittobreathe • Survive /sə(r)ˈvaɪv/tocontinuetoexist • Plankton /ˈplæŋktən/ verysmallanimalsandplantsthatliveinwaterandareeatenbyfish • Inhale /ɪnˈheɪl/ = Breathe in • tobreatheair, smoke, orothersubstancesintoyourlungs • Exhale= Breathe out • /eksˈheɪl/ tobreatheairoutthroughyourmouthornose • Exchange /ɪksˈtʃeɪndʒ/ give and take • Carbon Dioxide- Oxygen Cycle /ˈkɑː(r)bən/, /ˌkɑː(r)bəndaɪˈɒksaɪd/, /ˈɒksɪdʒ(ə)n/
FishDo I need oxygen to breath?Inhaleexhaleoxygen carbon-dioxide-oxygen cycle
Respiration • Most fish exchange gases using gills on either side of the pharynx. Gills consist of threadlike structures called filaments. Each filament contains a capillary network that provides a largesurface area for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. Fish exchange gases by pulling oxygen-rich water through their mouths and pumping it over their gills. In some fish, capillary blood flows in the opposite direction to the water, causing countercurrent exchange. The gills push the oxygen-poor water out through openings in the sides of the pharynx. Some fish, likesharks and lampreys, possess multiple gill openings. However, bony fish have a single gill opening on each side. This opening is hidden beneath a protective bony cover called anoperculum. • Juvenile bichirs have external gills, a very primitive feature that they share with larvalamphibians. • Fish from multiple groups can live out of the water for extended time periods. Amphibious fishsuch as the mudskipper can live and move about on land for up to several days, or live in stagnant or otherwise oxygen depleted water. Many such fish can breathe air via a variety of mechanisms. The skin of anguillid eels may absorb oxygen directly. The buccal cavity of the electric eel may breathe air.
Catfish of the familiesLoricariidae, Callichthyidae, and Scoloplacidae absorb air through their digestive tracts.Lungfish, with the exception of the Australian lungfish, and bichirs have paired lungs similar to those of tetrapods and must surface to gulp fresh air through the mouth and pass spent air out through the gills. Gar and bowfin have a vascularized swim bladder that functions in the same way. Loaches, trahiras, and many catfish breathe by passing air through the gut. Mudskippers breathe by absorbing oxygen across the skin (similar to frogs). A number of fish have evolved so-called accessory breathing organs that extract oxygen from the air. Labyrinth fish (such as gouramis and bettas) have a labyrinth organ above the gills that performs this function. A few other fish have structures resembling labyrinth organs in form and function, most notably snakeheads, pikeheads, and the Clariidae catfish family. • Breathing air is primarily of use to fish that inhabit shallow, seasonally variable waters where the water's oxygen concentration may seasonally decline. Fish dependent solely on dissolved oxygen, such as perch and cichlids, quickly suffocate, while air-breathers survive for much longer, in some cases in water that is little more than wet mud. At the most extreme, some air-breathing fish are able to survive in damp burrows for weeks without water, entering a state of aestivation(summertime hibernation) until water returns. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish
Cookery • Crab masala from Karnataka, India • Further information: Category:Crab dishes • Crabs are prepared and eaten as a dish in several different ways all over the world. Some species are eaten whole, including the shell, such as soft-shell crab; with other species just the claws and/or legs are eaten. The latter is particularly common for larger crabs, such as the snow crab. Mostly in East Asian cultures, the roe of the female crab is also eaten, which usually appears orange or yellow in colour in fertile crabs. • The biggest importers, and therefore countries where eating crab is immensely popular, are Japan, France, Spain, Hong Kong, the US, Canada and Portugal. • In some regions spices improve the culinary experience. In Southeast Asia and Indosphere, masala crab and chillicrabare examples of heavily spiced dishes. In the Chesapeake Bay region, blue crab is often eaten with Old Bay Seasoning. Alaskan king crab or snow crab legs are usually simply boiled and served with garlic butter. • For the British dish Cromer crab, the crab meat is extracted and placed inside the hard shell. One American way to prepare crab meat is by extracting it and adding a flour mix, creating a crab cake. • Crabs are also used in bisque, a global dish of French origin.
MolluskDo I have lungs or gills?Breath outbreath oxygen moleculesurviverelease carbon dioxide?
Respiration • Most molluscs have only one pair of gills, or even only one gill. Generally, the gills are rather like feathers in shape, although some species have gills with filaments on only one side. They divide the mantle cavity so water enters near the bottom and exits near the top. Their filaments have three kinds of cilia, one of which drives the water current through the mantle cavity, while the other two help to keep the gills clean. If the osphradia detect noxious chemicals or possibly sediment entering the mantle cavity, the gills' cilia may stop beating until the unwelcome intrusions have ceased. Each gill has an incoming blood vessel connected to the hemocoel and an outgoing one to the heart.
Plantsgive off oxygenneed oxygen?Carbon Dioxide- oxygen cycleLive in water?
Biomass variability • The growth of phytoplankton populations is dependent on light levels and nutrient availability. The chief factor limiting growth varies from region to region in the world's oceans. On a broad scale, growth of phytoplankton in the oligotrophic tropical and subtropical gyres is generally limited by nutrient supply, while light often limits phytoplankton growth in subarctic gyres. Environmental variability at multiple scales influences the nutrient and light available for phytoplankton, and as these organisms form the base of the marine food web, this variability in phytoplankton growth influences higher trophic levels. For example, at interannual scales phytoplankton levels temporarily plummet during El Nino periods, influencing populations of zooplankton, fishes, sea birds, and marine mammals. • The effects of anthropogenic warming on the global population of phytoplankton is an area of active research. Changes in the vertical stratification of the water column, the rate of temperature-dependent biological reactions, and the atmospheric supply of nutrients are expected to have important impacts on future phytoplankton productivity. Additionally, changes in the mortality of phytoplankton due to rates of zooplankton grazing may be significant.
1 Life on Earth is a balance of give and take between plants and animals. This cycle of giving and taking is necessary for life on Earth. A cycle is a series of events that happens over and over in the same order. One of Earth’s cycles is called the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle. This cycle makes it possible for plants and animals to get what they need to stay alive. • 2. A cycle is a ----------------- . • a. habitat • b. series of events • c. population
3 Animals must have oxygen to live. Oxygen is an important gas molecule in the air we breathe. Land animals breathe air. Their bodies have structures that take oxygen from air. The cells of animals’ bodies need oxygen. Without oxygen, animals can’t live. • 3. Which statement is not true? • a. Some animals breathe air. • b. Oxygen is not part of the air we breathe. • c. Animals cells need oxygen.
4 Oxygen is also in water. Most animals that live in water have gills. Gills take oxygen from water. Water animals need oxygen to survive. Some animals living in water don’t have gills. They have lungs. They must keep rising to the water’s surface to breathe air. • 4. Which statement is true? • a. Some water animals have lungs. • b. Lungs take oxygen from water. • c. Water animals do not need oxygen.
6 Where does oxygen come from? Plants produce oxygen when they make food. They give off some of it into the air or water. The oxygen in air comes from plants that live on land. The oxygen in water comes from plants and plankton that live in water. • 5. Water does not contain--------------- • a. oxygen • b. air • c. carbon dioxide
8 Plants need carbon dioxide. They need it to make food. If plants can’t make food, they die. • 9 Plants and animals need each other. Plants provide oxygen for animals. Animals provide carbon dioxide for plants. Life on Earth depends on this exchange between plants and animals. • 6. Plants and animals need-----------------. • a. oxygen • b. carbon dioxide • c. each other
LEARN ABOUT WORDS • Harderand more awful are comparative degrees of the adjectives hard and awful. Most adjectives of one syllable form the comparative by taking the –erending. Many adjectives of two or more syllables form the comparative by combining with the word more. • Write one or two words that will form the comparative degree of each of the following adjectives in bold type.
7. dark • Brown is a ---------------colour than yellow. • 8. narrow • A stream is --------------than a river. • 9. straight • This road is ---------------------than that one. • 10. tall • The apple tree is ----------------than the cherry tree. • 11. Sweet • An orange is -------------------than a lemon. • 12. cold • Alaska has a -------------------climate than Georgia. • 13. Colorful • The butterfly fish is ------------------than a trout. • 14. serious • Malaria is a ----------------------disease than chicken pox. • 15. slow • A turtle is ----------------------than a rabbit. • 16. warm • Summer is ------------------------------than spring.