OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE WELCOME
BASIS FOR THIS COURSE • THOUSANDS OF WORKERS CAN BENEFIT FROM ERGONOMICS • DAILY EXPOSURE TO NUMEROUS ERGONOMIC STRESSORS • DAILY EXPOSURE TO NUMEROUS PHYSICAL HAZARDS • EFFICIENCY CAN BE GREATLY IMPROVED • OSHA SAFETY STANDARDS REQUIRE: • Establishment of a “safety” program • Training be conducted • Ergonomic stressors be assessed • Hazards and precautions be explained
The study of man’s relationship with his or her workplace. Fitting the task to the person rather than forcing him/her to adapt to the work environment. Designing the workplace to prevent occupational injury and illness. ERGONOMICS DEFINED VARIOUS AUTHORS DEFINE ERGONOMICS AS:
Discovering the capabilities and limitations of the human body. The art and science that addresses workers’ job performance and well-being in relation to their job tasks, tools, equipment and environment. The study of the relationship between people and machines or between employees and their environment. ERGONOMICS DEFINED (Continued) VARIOUS AUTHORS DEFINE ERGONOMICS AS:
The study of the interaction between the worker and the process at the workplace. ERGONOMICS DEFINED (Continued) VARIOUS AUTHORS DEFINE ERGONOMICS AS: WHAT OTHER DEFINITIONS HAVE YOU HEARD?
Improve quality. Improve absenteeism. Maintain a healthier work force. Reduce injury and illness rates. Acceptance of high-turnover jobs. Workers feel good about their work. Reduce workers’ compensation costs. Elevate OSHA compliance to a higher level of awareness. SAFETY STATISTICS ERGONOMICS IS IMPORTANT ERGONOMICS PLAYS A ROLE IN APPROXIMATELY 50% OF ALL WORKPLACE INJURIES. ERGONOMICS WILL HELP:
ERGONOMICS A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACH THINK ABOUT THE NUMBER OF WAYS ERGONOMICS IMPACTS OUR DAILY LIFE!
WORK STATION DESIGN TOOL SELECTION AND DESIGN OFFICE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINALS (VDT’S) SAFETY BACK INJURY REDUCTION AND PREVENTION MANUAL MATERIAL HANDLING IMPROVEMENT CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDER (CTD) REDUCTION TYPICAL APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT Follow-up Recordkeeping Symptom surveys Health surveillance Classify job demands Disability management Establish treatment protocols Periodic reviews with physicians Early symptoms reporting mechanism Health care providers must be part of the program KEY PROGRAM ELEMENTS(Continued)
ERGONOMICS WORKING GROUP WRITTEN PROGRAM EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT TOP MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT REGULAR PROGRAM ACTIVITY, REVIEW AND EVALUATION KEY PROGRAM ELEMENTS(Continued)
HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL PPE REDUCTION ENGINEERING CONTROLS ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS OPTIMIZATION OF WORK PRACTICES DANGER EYE PROTECTION REQUIRED BEYOND THIS POINT KEY PROGRAM ELEMENTS(Continued)
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND ERGONOMIC CONTROLS • ENGINEERING CONTROLS FIRST CHOICE • Work Station Design Tool Selection and Design • Process Modification Mechanical Assist • ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS SECOND CHOICE • Training Programs Job Rotation/Enlargement • Pacing Policy and Procedures • PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LAST CHOICE • Gloves Wraps • Shields Eye Protection • Non-Slip Shoes Aprons
OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS: Occupational risk factors are defined as any attribute of a job or task that we know increases the probability of injury or illness. INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND ERGONOMIC CONTROLS • INAPPROPRIATE 1. Force - Including- Internal or External 2. Posture - Such as - Extreme Twisting or Bending 3. Repetition - Including- Muscle Group Overexertion 4. Insufficient Rest - Including- Muscle Group Overexertion
WORKSITE ANALYSIS IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR MAIN PARTS: WORKSITE ANALYSIS 1. Gathering information from available sources. 2. Conducting baseline screening surveys to determine which jobs need a closer analysis. 3. Performing ergonomic job hazard analyses of those work stations with identified risk factors. 4. After implementing control measures, conducting periodic surveys and follow-up to evaluate changes.
WORKSITE ANALYSIS Continued SYMPTOM SURVEY 1. NOTE AREAS OF PAIN OR DISCOMFORT! 2. WHAT DO YOU FEEL IS THE SOURCE? 3. WHAT ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES WOULD HELP? 4. WHAT OTHER FEEDBACK CAN BE GATHERED? BACK FRONT
INCIDENCE RATES: incidence rates for upper extremity disorders and/or back injuries should be calculated by counting the incidences of CTDs and reporting the incidences per 100 full time workers per year per facility. (NUMBER OF NEW CASES (200,000 WORK HRS*) PER FACILITY NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED/FACILITY/YR INCIDENCE RATE INCIDENCE RATES * 200,000 = APPROXIMATE ANNUAL WORK HOURS FOR 100 WORKERS. * THE SAME METHOD SHOULD BE APPLIED TO DEPARTMENTS, PRODUCTION LINES, OR JOB TYPES WITHIN EACH FACILITY.
2 X 200,000 100 X (50 X 40 hrs) IR = 400,000 200,000 IR = 2 CASES OF CARPAL TUNNEL PER 100 PERSON-YEARS OF EXPOSURE IR = INCIDENCE RATES(Continued) SAMPLE INCIDENCE RATE CALCULATION: (NUMBER OF NEW CASES (200,000 WORK HRS*) PER FACILITY NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED/FACILITY/YR IF YOU EXPERIENCED 2 CARPAL TUNNEL CASES LAST YEAR, IN A POPULATION OF 100 EMPLOYEES. WHAT IS THE INCIDENCE RATE? * 200,000 = APPROXIMATE ANNUAL WORK HOURS FOR 100 WORKERS. * THE SAME METHOD SHOULD BE APPLIED TO DEPARTMENTS, PRODUCTION LINES, OR JOB TYPES WITHIN EACH FACILITY.
ANTHROPOMETRY DEFINED • ANTHROPOMETRY: • The technology of measuring and quantifying various human physical traits such as size, weight, proportion, mobility and strength.
ANTHROPOMETRY DEFINED • ENGINEERING • ANTHROPOMETRY: • The application of anthropometric data to equipment, workplace and job design to enhance the efficiency, safety and comfort of the operator.
MEN WOMEN Physical Dimension 5th 50th 95th 5th 50th 95th 1. Stature 64.0 62.5 73.0 59.3 63.4 67.3 2. Eye ht. 59.6 64.2 68.7 55.3 59.3 63.4 3. Hip ht. 33.1 36.2 39.4 29.1 31.9 42.7 4. Elbow ht. 39.6 42.9 46.5 36.6 39.6 42.7 ANTHROPOMETRIC DIMENSIONS Inches Abbreviated Table of Anthropometric Dimensions
ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS • PERSONAL RISK FACTORS • 1. Age • 2. Gender • 3. Attitude • 4. Training • 5. Strength • 6. Work method • 7. Anthropometry
ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS Continued • JOB RISK FACTORS • 1. Weight of load • 2. Location/size of load • 3. Frequency of the Task • 4. Duration and pace of cycle • 5. Stability of load • 6. Coupling of load • 7. Travel distances of worker • 8. Reach distances of worker • 9. Symmetry between worker and the object held
ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS Continued JOB RISK FACTORS • 10. Static work posture • a) Standing • b) Sitting • 11. Work platforms or stairs • 12. Torso flexion (bending) • a) Mild (up to 45 degrees) • b) Severe (greater than 45 degrees) • 13. Work heights (too high or too low) • 14. Floor surfaces (wet, smooth, vibration)
ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS Continued JOB RISK FACTORS • 15. Environment • a) Hot (sweat, reduced grip, fatigue) • b) Cold (gloves reduce grip by as much as 30%) • 16. Lighting • a) posture problems (because of inability to see) • 17. Noise/vibration • a) Frequency very important • b) Can amplify through the body
WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH YOUR JOB? ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS Continued
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS UNIT LOADS: DEFINED AS: The unit to be moved or handled at any one time. THE CONTAINER, CARRIER, OR SUPPORT USED TO MOVE MATERIALS MUST BE INCLUDED AS PART OF THE UNIT LOAD.
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued FACTORS AFFECTING UNIT LOADS • THE MATERIAL TO BE UTILIZED • THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL TO BE HANDLED • THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE MATERIAL TO DAMAGE • THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE UNIT LOAD IS HANDLED • THE RECEIVING, STORING, SHIPPING, AND HANDLING METHODS • THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS TO WHICH THE LOAD IS EXPOSED
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued DESIGNING THE UNIT LOAD • OPTIMIZE THE WEIGHT OF THE LOAD • REDUCE THE SIZE OF THE LOAD • INSURE STABILITY OF THE LOAD • OPTIMIZE LOAD COUPLING - HAND TO LOAD - FOOT TO FLOOR
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued DEFINITION OF TERMS: • Fundamental Movements or acts • “ELEMENT” - Search - Inspect - Select - Assemble - Grasp - Disassemble - Reach - Delay (unavoidable) - Move - Delay (avoidable) - Hold - Plan - Position - Rest (overcome fatigue)
“CYCLE” • Example: • 1. Assemble new box • 2. Put bottles in box from conveyor • 3. Stack boxes on pallet • 4. Go to step 1 JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued DEFINITION OF TERMS: • The time required to complete one sequence of tasks • sub- tasks, or elements.
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued TASK ANALYSIS • IDENTIFY THE JOB TO STUDY • COLLECT THE DATA • EVALUATE THE DATA • FORMULATE CONTROL MEASURES
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued IDENTIFYING THE JOB TO STUDY • ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS • ACCIDENT STATISTICS • COMPLAINTS & OPERATOR FEEDBACK • PRODUCTION BOTTLENECKS, HIGH ERRORS • HIGH EMPLOYEE TURNOVER JOBS
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued COLLECTING THE DATA • DIRECT OBSERVATION • VIDEO TAPE • ACTION PHOTOGRAPHS • DOCUMENTARY ACCOUNTS • ACCIDENT STATISTICS
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued EVALUATING THE DATA • TASK DESCRIPTION • SUB-TASK DESCRIPTION • ELEMENT DESCRIPTION • RISK FACTOR/HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued FORMULATING CONTROL MEASURES • APPLICATION OF ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLES • CORRECTIVE ACTION FOR NON-COMPLIANCE • ELIMINATE OR REDUCE EXPOSURE
JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS Continued TASK ANALYSIS FORM • TASK DESCRIPTION - Action Being Performed • LEFT HAND - Usage • RIGHT HAND - Usage • FREQUENCY - Usually per minute • NOTES - Supporting information • POSTURE - Acceptable to extreme • FORCE - High, Medium, Low • DURATION - Length of Stressor