Using APA Style Manualfor Scholarly Publishing Presented by Betty McNeal B.S.; J.D.; M.L.S. Director of Information Services UNLV International Gaming Institute
Today’s Goals • Understand style manuals • Cover basics of APA manual • Explore electronic citation forms • Develop strategies for publishing success
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition • Sequence of chapters – idea to finished manuscript • Decimal divisions within chapters • Samples and examples/pp. 232-281
Style Manuals • The Chicago Manual of Style • MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing • U. S. Government Style Manual
Chicago Footnotes style Bibliography Book length ms. Author-date style Excessive rules APA Author-date style Article length ms. Economy of space Convenient Chicago vs. APA
Subject Style Manuals • The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation • AIP Style Manual (physics) • ACS Style Manual (chemistry) • American Medical Association Manual of Style • The AMA Style Guide for Business Writing
Style Manual Rationale • Ensure complete documentation • Set standards of uniformity • Give proper credit to sources
Style Manual Caveats • Lots of variations and exceptions • Can’t cover every situation • Electronic citation standards still evolving
Style Manual Contents • Designing and reporting research • Writing style • Editorial style • Use of statistics, tables, figures • Correct citation forms • Manuscript preparation and submission • Proofreading, editing, indexing
Major use is for Citation • Text Citation for immediate reference • Complete Citation in Reference List at the end • Emphasis on form, detail, exactness • Consistency counts
In-Text Citations • Author(s) and year only • Full citation in Reference List • Parentheses & punctuation • In a recent study of reaction times (Jones, 2000) compared… • Jones (2002) compared reaction times…
2 Authors: In-Text citation • Jones and Bones (1997) studied… • In a recent study (Jones & Bones, 1997) concluded…
3-5 Authors: In-Text citation • Smith, Jones, Brown, Green and Gray (1994) proved… • Smith, et al. (1994) proved… • Must distinguish between first cite and subsequent cites in the text • It has been proved (Smith, et al., 1994)… • Use of et al., in parentheses
Several authors, same ( ): In-Text • (Edeline & Weinberger, 1991, 1993) • (Balda, 1980; Kamil, 1988; & Smith, 2002) • (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b; & Singh, 1983, in press) • * 6 or more authors, use first author with et al. for all in-text cites, not just the first
Group Author: In-Text • (Pacific Asia Travel Association, 1999) • (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1987) • (NIMH, 1987)
Direct quote in text • Jones (2001, p. 64) predicted that “profits will decrease for the next five years”. • Must use quotation marks and page number.
No author: In-Text • Use the first few words from the title and add the date, quotes in ( ) • Actual title: New hotel college for UNLV next year. (2002). • Cite in text as: (“New Hotel College,” 2002)…
Personal communication: In-Text • T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001) • Examples: letters, e-mail, interviews, phone calls, conversations • Do not add personal communications to Reference List
In-Text citation - Summary • Author-date style • Brief info in parentheses • Comma between author,date within ( ) • Form varies with placement in sentence
Reference List • Not a bibliography • Full citations • Identifies item with bibliographic elements in specified order • Special punctuation, italics and capitalization
Each Reference List Entry Series of Identifying Statements • Author (name, initials, type of authorship) • Date (year, sometimes month, day) • Title (title, edition) • Overall source (periodicals, excerpts) • Availability (city, publisher, Internet URL)
Reference List Order • Alphabetical order by author • Letter by letter: Brown, J. R. precedes Browning, A. R. • Mc and Mac: MacArthur precedes McAllister
Reference List Order: Same Author • Hewlett, L. S. (1996). • Hewlett, L. S. (1999a). • Hewlett, L. S. (1999b). • Allen, R. L. (2001). • Allen, R. L., & Evans, A. J. (1999).
Reference List Order: Same First Author • Gosling, J. R., Jerald, K., & Belfar, S. F. (2000) • Gosling, J. R., & Tevlin, D. F. (1996)
Reference List Order: Same Last Name • Mathur, A. L., & Wallston, J. (1999). • Mathur, S. E., & Ahlers, R. J. (1998).
Reference List: Publisher Info • Publisher’s Location • Use city and state (or province) and country if needed for clarity [New Castle, PA; Chichester, England; Calgary, Alberta, Canada] • 13 stand-alone cities. No state or country needed (e. g., New York, Chicago, London, Paris, Tokyo, Rome, Boston, etc.) • Publisher’s Name – Option to eliminate: “and Co., and Sons, Publishers”, etc.
Authors in Reference List • Author • Co-authors • Editor • Compiler • Group • Organization • Single name author/Initials
Group Authors • Corporation • Government agency • Association/organization • Institute • Committee/commission • Conference
Reference List: Periodicals • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xxx(xx), xxx-xxx.
Periodical: Sample Citation Lam, T., Zhang, H., & Baum, T. (2001). An investigation of employee’s job satisfaction: The case of hotels in Hong Kong. Tourism Management, 22(2), 157-165.
Reference List: Books • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of book (edition abbreviated in parentheses). Publisher’s location: Publisher’s name.
Sample book citation • Buglear, J. (2000). Stats to go: A guide to statistics for hospitality, leisure and tourism. Oxford, England: Butterworth- Heinemann.
Sample book citations • Powers, T. Marketing hospitality (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. • Carmouche, R., & Kelly, N. (1995). Behaviouralstudies in hospitality management. London: Chapman & Hall.
Book Excerpt • Author, A. (year). Title of chapter, article or excerpt. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher’s location: Publisher’s name.
Book Excerpt Sample • Daft, R. (1985). Why I recommended that your manuscript be rejected and what you can do about it. In L. Cummings & P. Frost (Eds.), Publishing in the organizational sciences (pp. 193-210). Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
Reference List: Online Publication • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source.
Online Publication Sample • Prabhu, S. (1996). Challenges for hospitality and tourism operators: A North American perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 8(7), 52-62. Retrieved March 4, 2002 from http://cherubino.emeraldinsight.com/vl=152 43752/cl=44/nw=1/fm=docpdf/rpsv/cw/mcb/ 09596119/v8n7/s6/p52
We have just covered the basic formulas • Formulas work most of the time if you remember theirbasic concepts. • Slight variations can sometimes be intuited • Periodical=journal, magazine, newspaper, newsletter, annual • Book=book, monograph, brochure, report, non-periodical • Book excerpt=chapter, article, section in an edited or compiled work • Online=Online journal, Internet article, online newsletter, etc.
What if…? • The book is really a dissertation? • The book has no author? • The online journal is an electronic version of a print journal? • The journal article has been accepted but not yet published? • The work is foreign and a translator is listed?
Periodical:Non-English Title • Author, A. (year). Original title [English title in brackets]. Title of Periodical, xx(xx),xxx-xxx.
Periodical: Magazine • Time, Newsweek, Architectural Digest, etc. • Author, A., (year, month and date). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume, Pages. • If no author, begin with article title, then date, then magazine title, etc.
Periodical: Magazine Supplement • APA example may not fit your material • Give supplement no. in ( ) immediately after volume. • What if supplement has its own name? Taucer, V. (2000, February). Voodoo in table games operations. Indian Gaming Business, 22. [Quarterly supplement to IGWB]
Periodical: Entire issue • Applies also to special section of journal • Give editor’s name • McKee, J. (Ed.). (2000). World of slots 2000 [Special issue]. Casino Journal, 13(10).
Periodical: Monograph bound into a journal • Include Monograph in brackets • Ganster, D. C. (1991). The nomological validity of Type A personality among employed adults [Monograph]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 143-168.
Periodical: No Author • Charting the projections: 1992-2005. (1995, Fall). Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 1-27.
Periodical: Letter to the editor • Berkowitz, A. D. (2000, November 24). How to tackle the problem of student drinking [Letter to the editor]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, p. B20.
Dissertation Different forms depending on what source you used • Mann, S. H. (1969). A mathematical theory for the exploitation and control of biological populations. Dissertation Abstracts International. 30(09), 3599B. (UMI No. 7005121)
Dissertation, style 2 • Ross, D. F. (1990). Unconscious transference and mistaken identity: When a witness misidentifies a familiar but innocent person from a lineup (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International 51, 417.
Dissertation, unpublished • Wilfley, D. E. (1989). Interpersonal analyses of bulimia: Normal-weight and obese. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri, Columbia.
Brochure, group author • Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.). [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author.