. Bismilla Hir Rahma Nirraheem
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT • CONFLICT: (A disagreement of ideas or interests). • Levels: Intraindividual(Desire to achieve two goals that are incompatible, e.g. wish to work and be housewife, good researcher and interpersonal relationship). Interpersonal, Intergroup, Organizational, and International.
Definition & Explanation: • divergent – incompatibility • A painful or unhappy state of consciousness resulting from a clash or contest of incompatible desire(s), aim(s), derive(s).
Functional (constructive) & Dysfunctional): If it • supports the goals of the organization and improves the organization’s performance is called functional. • hinders organizational performance is defined as dysfunctional.
Q. Who decides? Perception of people or ---any criterion • CONTEMPORARY VIEWS OF CONFLICTS • Inevitable, endemic, and often legitimate (due to interdependence).
The CLASSICAL Management • views as evidence of breakdown in the organization: failure on the part of management to plan adequately and/or to exercise sufficient control.
In HUMAN RELATIONS Theory • views, as evidence of failure to develop appropriate norms in the group. • TRADITIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE Theory has been in favor of the ideal of a smooth running organization, characterized by harmony, unity, coordination, efficiency, and order.
EFFECTS OF CONFLICTS: • Psychologically: alienation, apathy, hostility, indifference-- • Physically: absence, tardiness, turnover, property damage, minor theft- • Medically: Ulcer
Conflicts have positive aspects? • Spurs initiatives • Creates energy • Stimulates new ideas
COMMON TYPES OF CONFLICTS IN ORGANIZATIONS • Conflicts with authority • Conflicts between functions • SOME CAUSES: • Unclear authority structure • Conflict of interests • Personal dispute (s) • Perception of organizational
. • Unfair division of work • Incompetent discipline • Absence of esprit de corp. • Laissez-faire administration • Interpretation • Communication • Who should do what? • Poor coordination of activities
EFFECT OF CONFLICTS ON ORGANIZATIONAL • Positive and Negative • RESOLUTION: Impose OR Compromise • What happens by imposing solution's)? • (Encourage retaliation – Discourage interchange of ideas). • Result: Outcomes are reasonably certain. • Compromise: Rarely satisfy parties.
. • BEST Strategy: Be Just • Good Strategy: Relate particular circumstance to the objective of the organization. • Some other strategies: • Job rotation • Job design • Improving team spirit
. • Group bonus • Flow of information through the organization • Lessen boundaries of the internal departments • Counseling • Charismatic leadership
GROUP DYNAMICS; MAKING GROUPS WORK • Workshop objectives: • By the end of this session each attendee will be able to : • Identify Group Dynamics Process and Concepts and Their Application in Implementing the EI process • Describe Several Techniques for Effectively Handling Group Meetings
AGENDA • Group Development: A dynamic Process • Influencing Factors • The Leader as a Facilitator • The Recorder • Consensus Decision Making • Personality Styles: Identification and Management • Group Conflict: Analysis and Diagnosis • Summary and Evaluation
Group Development: Purpose of The Group • Identify the Purpose as perceived by each individual member. • Purpose of the Group • Reason for membership • Identify the purpose as conceived by program plan: • Purpose of the Group • Relationship to other Groups
. • Identify outcomes expected as a result of each individual group meeting: • As effecting individual members. • As effecting the organization • Identify outcomes expected as a result of the implementation of the program plan. • As effecting individual members • As effecting the organization
Group Development: Important Contributions of Organizational • They can do the bulk of the work of the organization • So Defined by the purpose/goal statement. • They provide an opportunity for specific individuals • To do the kind of work for which they are especially suited • They provide an excellent training round for new leaders.
. • They can draw from the training and experience of a wider representation of the organization • They permit wider participation of the member of the organization. • The group members collectively have wider contacts and can provide greater access to the means to accomplish the group goals. • they provide a channel of direct communication and a reporting contact with decision makers.
Group Development: Selection of Members • The Members: • Must have an interest in the purpose of the group. • Must have a relevant knowledge of skill. • Should be able to benefit them. • Should develop a greater identity with the organization. • Should have access to resources.
. • Should be largely compatible with each other. • Should be largely compatible with the leaders. • Could be selected as representatives: • Representing different opinions or points of view. • Representing different department or sub groups • Representing Different geographic locations.
Group Developing : Influencing Factor • Group Size: • Studies have shown that group size should vary according to need. IE: The ideal maximum for a Decision-making group is 7; the ideal maximum for a facto finding group is 14. • Groups with an even number of members in attendance make more accurate decisions because they are less likely than odd numbered groups to resort to the simple process of voting • Odd numbered group work faster.
Group space • Seating arrangements and comfort • Floor plan arrangement (other furniture/equipment) • Group member flow patterns] • Natural or electrical light • Window (amount and location) • Color and interior design • Acoustics and sound/noise • Temperature and humidity • Location of group space in relationship to other member activities.
Group Time • Irregular or consistent • Time of day • Day of week • Duration of meeting • Duration of Formal meeting • Duration of entire meeting • Duration of component parts • Duration of member contributions
Group Cohesiveness: • Is the degree to witch group members are of one mind and thus can act as one body. Sometimes cohesiveness is thought of as group loyalty, group solidarity or group pride. • Results form homogeneity of membership (common goal), stability of membership over time, and high status. • In general creates more effective groups. Also, effective groups are more cohesive. • Can be influenced by selection, transfer, location and other influencing factors. • Can be established and enhanced by threats from “the outside.
Group Culture, influence, and control • A developed group becomes its own society. It ahs its own language, customs, rituals and ways of doing things. • Group conversations often center around themes ( regardless of the relevance to group purpose). • These themes are part of group culture.
. • A group can and will be influenced by power • From group members • From organizations • A developed group can and will exercise power. • Over group member • Over organizations
SOLVING PROBLEMS OF CONFLECT • Talk to each party as openly as possible • State aims, view and feelings openly but calmly, and try to avoid reiteration. • Focus on future action rather than on the events of the past. • Listen carefully to each other’s point of view and seek to understand.
. • Try to build on each other’s ideas • Trust each other’s good faith and try to act in good faith. • Plan some clear actions to follow the discussion specifying who will do what by when. • Set a date and time to review progress and keep it at all costs.
GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING CONFLICT In order to minimize the destructive effects of conflict the following principals should be observed: • Maintain as much communication as possible with all parties. • Refrain from the temptation to talk about the other person behind their back.
. • If you see signs of interdepartmental conflict, try to establish projects on either neutral or sensitive subjects. • Try to see all sides of a dispute, ( remembering that most staff will only behave negatively if they believe they are under threat or attack.)