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Synthetic Biology

Synthetic Biology

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Synthetic Biology

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  1. Synthetic Biology Research: Cyanobacterial Energy Proposal: Polypropylene Biodegrading Bacteria By: Tatiana Gelaf

  2. Cyanobacterial Energy http://english.qibebt.cas.cn/rh/rp/201210/t20121009_91770.html

  3. The Problem • Fossil fuels are limited and cause pollution • 1st generation biofuels: from crops • Use food sources • Environmental impact • Costly • High energy cost (fertilizer) • Highly controversial

  4. Solution using Synbio • Cyanobacteria naturally produce a variety of products which can be used as biofuels. • Hydrogen • Various Alcohols • Synthetic biologists work to make them more efficient in this production.

  5. Hydrogen • Nitrogenase : nitrogen fixation • Hydrogen produced is consumed by hydrogenase. • Synbiologist modifying bacteria to not consume this hydrogen. • Bidirectional hydrogenase: oxidizes/produces • Intolerant to oxygen • Synbiologists working on oxygen-tolerant bacteria. • Fuel source to be burned with only byproduct being water. http://phidrogeno.blogspot.com/

  6. Ethanol • Produced through fermentation • Pyruvates acetaldehyde ethanol • Engineered to produce more through overexpression of relevant genes. • Used as supplement/replacement to diesel.

  7. Butanol • Two distinct pathways. • Synthetic 2-ketoacid pathway  • Uses intermediates from amino acid production • 2-ketovaleratebutanol • CoA-dependent pathway • Acetyl-CoA Butyryl-CoAButanol • Occurs in nature. • Production concentrated through introduction of certain enzymes. • Can be used in petroleum engines or mixed with diesel.

  8. http://gophoto.us/key/1%20butanol%20sigma%20aldrich

  9. Photanol • Phototrophs+Chemiotrophs photofermentative systems. • Phototrophs: • use energy from photons • produce C3 • Chemiotrophs • use energy from oxidized compounds in environment • consume C3 • produce various products through fermentation.

  10. Photofermentative system http://www.springerimages.com/Images/RSS/1-10.1007_s10126-010-9311-1-1

  11. Sources http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1343573/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136707/http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101214141932.htmhttp://phys.org/news/2013-03-fuel-bacteria-genetically-modified-cyanobacteria-efficient.htmlhttp://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2010/541698/http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2012/EE/c2ee23148dhttp://aem.asm.org/content/65/2/523.fullhttp://www.sebioenergy.org/2011/speakers/Spall.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel

  12. Polypropylene Degrading Bacteria

  13. The Problem • Most types of plastics don’t biodegrade. • Remain in environment. • Pose a threat to wildlife. • Release toxins.

  14. Current Technologies • Biodegradable plastics • Crops • Designed to be composted, takes a while • Recycling • Structural problems • Energy expensive • Selected for Bacteria • Produce useless/dangerous byproducts.

  15. Proposed Solution • Polypropylene propylene • Propylene • Previously produced from fossil fuels • Recycled to polypropylene • Acetone, phenol, isopropanol

  16. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypropylene http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propene https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypropylene

  17. Bacteria • Two component signaling: uses polypropylene as chemical signal • Open reading frame codes for one of the following: • Modified endonuclease • hydroxyethylphophonatedioxygenase (HEPD)

  18. Modified Endonuclease • NEase • Covalent intermediate • Modified recognition site • Covalent intermediate: nucleophiletransition metal

  19. HEPD • Cleaves C-C • Uses oxygen + ferric superoxide

  20. Sources http://www.livescience.com/33085-petroleum-derived-plastic-non-biodegradable.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic#Polystyrenehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_recyclinghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypropylenehttp://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Biodegradation.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propenehttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00253-001-0850-2http://www.intechopen.com/books/polypropylene/thermal-oxidation-of-polypropylene-and-modified-polypropylene-structure-effectshttp://science.howstuffworks.com/plastic5.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restriction_enzyme#Recognition_sitehttp://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:hF3zOIoNU3AJ:www.springer.com/%3FSGWID%3D4-102-45-105452-0+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ushttp://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/7326http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22528/http://www.news.illinois.edu/news/09/0610chemistry.htmlhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21121666