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Virus & Bacteria Jeopardy! PowerPoint Presentation
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Virus & Bacteria Jeopardy!

Virus & Bacteria Jeopardy!

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Virus & Bacteria Jeopardy!

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  1. Virus & Bacteria Jeopardy!

  2. Viruses $100 • Describe the basic structure of a virus. Infectous particles consisting of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)enclosed in protein coat, and in some cases a membranous envelope. Return

  3. Viruses $200 • What is a virus that infects bacteria called? (Hint: think back to chapter 16…) bacteriophage Return

  4. Viruses $300 • Why can certain viruses only infect specific types of cell? Viruses identify their host cells based on its membrane receptors. The virus’s surface proteins must “fit” the host cell’s receptors like a “lock and key.” Return

  5. Viruses $400 • Describe the key differences between the lytic and lysogenic cycles. Lytic cycle: 1.Attachment 2.Entry of viral DNA into host 3.Synthesis of viral genome & proteins 4. Assembly 5. Release! Lysogenic cycle: 1.Attachment 2.Entry 3. Integration 4. Reproduction 5. Lytic cycle stimulation Return

  6. Viruses $500 • List the seven characteristics of life and identify which of these a virus does NOT exhibit. Is a virus considered living then? 1.Response to environment 2.Metabolism/Energy Processing3.Ability to reproduce 4.Organization/Order 5.Growth/Development 6.Evolutionary Adaptation 7.Regulation Return

  7. Regulation $100 • List the three parts of an operon. 1.Operator 2.Promoter 3.Genes Return

  8. Regulation $200 • Describe a repressible operon One that can be turned off, but is usually on! The repressor is made in the inactive form. Return

  9. Regulation $300 • Describe an inducible operon. An operon that can be turned on but is usually off. Repressor is made in the active form. Return

  10. Regulation $400 • Compare and contrast the trp and lac operon. In detail! Trp operon is a repressible operon. Normally it is ON, synthesizing tryptophan, but can be turned off if tryptophan (acting as a co-repressor) is present. Lac operon is an inducible operon. Normally it is OFF, but when lactose is present it can inactivate the repressor and turn on expression of genes that will produce enzymes which break down lactose! Return

  11. Regulation $500 • What is the function or purpose of an operon? Allows all necessary genes to be grouped together and turned on simultaneously. Allows resources to be conserved! Return

  12. Grab Bag $100 • How many chickens does Downing have? Three! Return

  13. Grab Bag $200 • What is the F plasmid? Contains the genes necessary for making a sex pilus – needed for conjugation! Return

  14. Grab Bag $300 • How do baceria reproduce? Name the process. Binary fission Return

  15. Grab Bag $400 • Why is it important to take all of your antibiotics when you are fighting off strep throat (caused by a bacteria!)? Some bacteria will be produced with mutations which make them resistant to antibiotics (makes it harder to kill them!). If you only take a portion of your antibiotics you’ll only kill off the weakest bacteria. The stronger/resistant bacteria will survive, reproduce quickly and soon you will have a huge population of super strong bacteria in your body! Yikes. Then these bacteria can pass on the resistance genes to other bacteria. Double yikes. Return

  16. Grab Bag $500 Discuss the five levels of chromosome folding/packaging.. • 1. DNA double helix • 10 nm/DNA wound around nucleosomes • 30 nm fiber/nucleosomes “clustered” • 300 nm fiber/Looped Domains • Chromosomes! Looped domains coild & fold more Return

  17. Bacteria $100 Compare a bacterial genome to the human genome (or that of another eukaryotic cell.) Bacteria have a double stranded circular DNA molecule while humans have 46 linear DNA molecules. Bacterial DNA is not membrane bound/enclosed in a nucleus. May also have separate plasmids. Return

  18. Bacteria $200 Describe a plasmid. Plasmids are small circular pieces of DNA that can self replicate. Bacteria may have plasmid DNA in addition to their bacterial chromosome. A plasmid has a small number of genes that may confer advantages to bacteria that gain it. Return

  19. Bacteria $300 Define, compare and contrast: Transformation Transduction Conjugation Transformation: uptake of “new” or naked DNA Transduction: insertion of “new” DNA into a bacteria by a phage virurs Conjugation: bacterial “sex” through use of a sex pilus. One bacteria transfers DNA to another. **They are all methods of genetic recombination! New combinations of genes! Return

  20. Bacteria $400 Define transposition and explain transposable elements/transposons. Transposable elements (sometimes called “jumping genes”) never exist independently, but are always part of chromosomal or plasmid DNA. During transposition, these elements (or gene segments) move from one site in the DNA to another. It’s a type of recombination…although it may cause harmful mutations. Return

  21. Bacteria $500 Why was IraqiBacter so dangerous? IraqiBacter contains “foreign” DNA. Due to conjugation & transposition, many dangerous/powerful genes ended up all together in IraqiBacter’s DNA. For example: 45 different antibiotic resistance genes & genes for causing legionaires disease Return