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Factors affecting attainment

Factors affecting attainment

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Factors affecting attainment

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  1. Tuesday 25th March 2014 Factors affecting attainment LO: To understand and evaluate what has the biggest influence on an individuals attainment. Labelling, setting and the development of subcultures Starter: Make a list of all the things that could affect how well a person does at school.

  2. Factor affecting attainment • Type of school • Gender • Ethnicity • Social class • Wealth • Role models • Peer pressure • What set you are in • Teachers expectations

  3. What is Labelling Define: the process of attaching a characteristic or definition to an individual or group. Teachers are unavoidably involved in making judgement about pupils – these judgements often affect a child’s chances of educational achievement Labelling can be both positive and negative

  4. Halo effect Behaviour links to expectations Students may be ‘typecast’ based on: • Appearance • Manners • Speech • Homes If a pupils is wellbehaved some teachers may see them as ‘bright’ Teachers may question good performance from less well behaved pupils Result = ‘able’ students are perceived as middle-class Teachers assessments of pupils tend to reflect teachers views of what middle-class and working-class pupils SHOULD be capable of – not actual performance For example, entering disruptive pupils into lower tier exams to achieve higher results on the league table

  5. Self-fulfilling prophecy Define: Where teachers make a prediction about a student that comes true. Treating a student according to their prediction may lead the student to come to accept the teachers view of them and so the prediction becomes reality. If teachers have low expectations of working-class children they may see them as only capable of reaching a certain level = pupil see’s no point in trying = self-fulfilling prophecy Students bring their own ‘self-image’ into line with the teachers judgement – even if students resist the teachers label they may not be able to improve as the teacher may see helping them as a waste of time The student is forced to accept the teacher’s ‘prophecy’

  6. Describe how teachers label students. • Identify and explain one possible effect of the self-fulfilling prophecy • Some students may try to reject the label they are given. Identify and explain one way in which this might happen.

  7. Streaming Define: Where students are separated into different ability groups and then taught in these groups for all their subjects Positives: • Students get to work alongside pupils of the same ability • Levels of work that are appropriate for their needs • Teachers can produce lessons and materials that are suitable and more effective

  8. Criticisms • Students in lower streams are disheartened = they don’t try to improve • Teachers pay them less attention • Streaming is often associated with social class – a disproportionate amount of working-class pupils in lower sets • Transferring pupils between streams is rare – if someone is placed in a lower stream than they are capable of they are unlikely to progress

  9. Counter-culture and peer group pressure Subculture: social groups which differ from the dominant culture in terms of their members values, beliefs, customs, language, dress code etc. One of the effects of streaming is to lead to a school subculture – a group which has opposite norms and values to the schools. Lower-stream pupils reject academic values and standards of behaviour = labelled as ‘failures’ by mainstream norms and values. This results in the creation of a ‘counter-culture’ = defiance of teachers and daring exploits. Defining their own norms and values allows them to achieve status which they cannot do via educational attainment. List as many things as you can that you think a school subculture may include.

  10. Smoking • Truancy • Graffiti • Leave the school • Swearing at teachers • Wear trainers/colour hair/ make-up/hoodies

  11. School Organisation A well organised school = clear rules and good leadership They have better results than poorly organised schools Schools with the best results have: • Strong leadership • Teachers were dedicated and prepared • Strong emphasis on academic achievement • Praise and encouragement was emphasised – rather than criticism and punishment The quality of the school is thought to play a role in improving student achievement and attempting to overcome social class

  12. Discussion activity • How can streaming affect a pupils performance? • How would you explain why a higher number of lower-stream students come from working class backgrounds?

  13. Exam practice 1) Identify one reason for streaming pupils and explain how this could affect their achievement. (5 marks) One reason could be… This could affect their achievement because… 2) What is meant by the ‘school counter culture?’ (4)

  14. Re-phrase the following sentences using key terms from this week • When you get a rep, it’s well hard to shift. • When all my mates keep hassling me to bunk. • Folks at home say leaving school at 16 is stupid • Teachers can be well jarring • In x1 the work is bare long • I don’t care about the rules, I do what I like ‘cos I’m hard • My teacher has been off for ages so we haven’t done any work for pure time.

  15. Re-phrase the following sentences using key terms from this week When a student is labelled it may lead to a self fulfilling prophecy Truancy may be caused by peer pressure Middle and upper class parents may have higher expectations of their children compared to lower class parents. Teachers may label students according to stereotypes based on their ability, behaviour, gender and ethnicity. Students in the top sets may be encouraged to succeed more than those in lower sets. Students who are labelled my join the school counter culture and refuse to conform to school rules. Schools with better facilities and plenty of staff that are better organised, are more likely to achieve better exam results. • When you get a rep, it’s well hard to shift. • When all my mates keep hassling me to bunk. • Folks at home say leaving school at 16 is stupid • Teachers can be well jarring • In x1 the work is bare long • I don’t care about the rules, I do what I like ‘cos I’m hard • My teacher has been off for ages so we haven’t done any work for pure time.