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Chemistry of Living Things

Chemistry of Living Things. © Lisa Michalek. Chemistry of Living things. Element A pure substance made up entirely of one kind of atom that cant be broken down into other substances Ninety-two elements occur naturally. The Periodic Table of Elements. Compounds.

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Chemistry of Living Things

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  1. Chemistry of Living Things © Lisa Michalek

  2. Chemistry of Living things Element A pure substance made up entirely of one kind of atom that cant be broken down into other substances Ninety-two elements occur naturally

  3. The Periodic Table of Elements

  4. Compounds • A compound is formed when two or more elements combine chemically.

  5. Compounds A compound is formed when two or more elements combine chemically.

  6. Organic Compounds • Any compound that contains carbon

  7. Organic and Inorganic Compounds • Living things are made up of inorganic and organic compounds. • Inorganic compounds: Compounds that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen. • The principal inorganic compounds found in living things are: • water • salts • inorganic acids • Inorganic bases

  8. Organic and Inorganic Compounds • Organic compounds are compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen. • The classes of organic compounds found in living things are: • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Lipids • Nucleic acids

  9. Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for cell activities. • starch and sugar • Carbohydrates are made up of the elements carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

  10. Carbohydrates • The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharidesor simple sugars. • They are called the “building blocks” of carbohydrates. • A common monosaccharide is glucose (C6H12O6). • Glucose is formed during photosynthesis.

  11. Lipids • Lipids include fats and oils. • Fats are solid at room temperature. • Oils are liquids at room temperature. • In living organisms, lipids form part of the structure of cell membranes. • Extra food that is not immediately needed as a source of energy is changed to fat and stored. • Lipids are a source of stored energy in living organisms.

  12. Lipids • Lipids, like carbohydrates, contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. • The building blocks of lipids are fatty acidsand glycerol.

  13. Proteins • Proteins form important cell products such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and hemoglobin. • Proteins also play an Important role in cell repair and growth. • Proteins are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

  14. Proteins • Proteins are composed of simpler units (building blocks) called amino acids. • There are twenty amino acids found in living things. • Amino acids can be joined together in any sequence and combination. • Because of this, there are a very large number of different proteins.

  15. Enzymes • Each chemical reaction that occurs in a living thing is controlled by an enzyme. • Enzymes are large, complex protein molecules that control the rate of chemical reactions.

  16. Nucleic Acids • Nucleic acids are very large molecules made up of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus. • The simplest unit or building block of nucleic acids is the nucleotide. • Nucleotides are composed of a sugar molecule, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.

  17. Nucleic Acids • DNA and RNA are two kinds of nucleic acids. • DNA makes up genes and is involved in heredity. • RNA is involved in the making of proteins.

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