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Chapter 8 The Presidency

Chapter 8 The Presidency

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Chapter 8 The Presidency

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  1. Chapter 8The Presidency Section 1 President and Vice President

  2. Duties of the President • Presidents have enormous power and responsibility in government.

  3. Duties of the President • President’s make sure the national laws are fully executed.

  4. Duties of the President • The president serves as commander in chief of the armed forces.

  5. Duties of the President • The president meets with heads of foreign governments.

  6. Duties of the President • The President also appoints top government officials, federal judges and ambassadors.

  7. Discussion Question • Compare the president’s duties in foreign policy with his duties in domestic policy.

  8. President’s Term and Salary • The 22nd Amendment limited presidents to two-terms.

  9. President’s Term and Salary • Congress determines the president’s salary ($200,000 since 1969) • The president also receives many benefits in and after being in office.

  10. Presidential Qualifications • The Constitution sets several requirements for the president. • Natural-born citizen • At least 35 years old • Resident of the U.S. for 14 years.

  11. Presidential Qualifications • Experience in government is an unwritten but IMPORTANT qualification!

  12. Presidential Qualifications • Candidates must have access to sources for raising large amounts of money in the presidential election campaign.

  13. Presidential Qualifications • Most presidents have shared similar backgrounds – ethnic, economic, racial, and gender.

  14. Presidential Qualifications • Being president underscores personal strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Discussion Question • What do you consider the most important qualification for the office of president? Explain!

  16. Presidential Succession • The 25th Amendment established the order of succession to the presidency and spelled out what happens when the Vice Presidency is vacant.

  17. Presidential Succession • The 25th Amendment also set forth rules to be followed if a president becomes disabled.

  18. The Vice President’s Role • The vice president’s work depends on what jobs, if any the president assigns.

  19. The Vice President’s Role • Although presidents before Eisenhower generally ignored their VP’s, presidents since then have tried to give their VP’s more responsibility.

  20. Discussion Question • Why have recent presidents tried to give their vice presidents more responsibility?

  21. Chapter 8The Presidency Section 2 Electing the President

  22. The Original System • Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution provided that the candidate receiving the majority of the electoral votes became president.

  23. The Original System • The candidate with the second-highest number of votes became vice president.

  24. The Impact of Political Parties • The election of 1800 was decided by the House of Representatives.

  25. The Impact of Political Parties • To prevent a tie vote for president in the Electoral College, the 12th Amendment added in 1804 requires separate ballots for president and vice president.

  26. The Electoral College System Today • The Electoral College is still used today. • The Electoral College votes in December.

  27. The Electoral College System Today • The College uses a winner-takes-all system. • All of the states’ (except Maine and Nebraska) electoral votes go to the candidate receiving the largest popular vote.

  28. The Electoral College System Today • The number of electoral votes per state is determined by the number of seats a state has in the House and Senate combined. The minimum a state can have is 3 electoral votes.

  29. Electoral College Issues • Critics say that the Electoral College’s winner-take-all system is unfair.

  30. Electoral College Issues • The Electoral College system also makes it possible for a candidate who loses the total popular vote to win the electoral vote.

  31. Electoral College Issues • Other critics believe the Electoral College should be replaced with direct election of the president and vice president like any other election.

  32. Discussion Question • Do you agree or disagree with critics who argue that the Electoral College system should be abolished? Explain!

  33. The Inauguration • All leading officials from the three branches of government attend the January ceremony. • The new president is sworn into office in an inauguration ceremony.

  34. Chapter 8The Presidency Section 3 The Cabinet

  35. Selection of the Cabinet • The president must consider whether potential cabinet members’ backgrounds suit their cabinet posts.

  36. Selection of the Cabinet • A member should bring geographical balance to the cabinet, have high level administration skills, and satisfy interest groups.

  37. Selection of the Cabinet • The cabinet should include minorities and women as well.

  38. Selection of the Cabinet • Cabinet members today usually are college graduates and leaders in various professional fields.

  39. Selection of the Cabinet • The Senate must approve cabinet appointees.

  40. The Role of the Cabinet • Cabinet members are heads of the executive departments. • The cabinet’s role is determined by the president.

  41. The Role of the Cabinet • Modern presidents usually have not depended on the cabinet for advice in decision-making but have turned to White House staff and close friends as their advisors.

  42. The Role of the Cabinet • Certain cabinet members – the secretaries of state defense, and treasury plus the attorney general – form the “inner cabinet.”

  43. Factors Limiting the Cabinet’s Role • The president does not command the full loyalty of cabinet members, even though he appoints them.

  44. Factors Limiting the Cabinet’s Role • Cabinet members are pressured by career officials in their departments, interest groups, and members of Congress.

  45. Factors Limiting the Cabinet’s Role • With 14 cabinet members, it is difficult to maintain secrecy in matters the president considers sensitive.

  46. Factors Limiting the Cabinet’s Role • The president may not know and trust all the members of the cabinet because the president must weigh so many factors in appointing them.

  47. Discussion Question • Do you think the president should appoint to cabinet positions people he knows and trusts or relative strangers who have specialized expertise? Explain!

  48. Chapter 8The Presidency Section 4 The Executive Offices

  49. Executive Office Agencies • The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by Congress.

  50. Executive Office Agencies • The EOP has grown rapidly for three reasons: • Presidents keep adding new agencies to it • Presidents want experts nearby to advise them about issues • Huge federal programs require agencies to coordinate efforts of the executive departments and agencies in working together.