World War One America Ascendant
Long-term causes • 1. Imperialism • A. competition amongst European nations for resources, labor, markets
2. Nationalism • Pan-Slavism • Pan-Germanism • Revanche (Franco-Prussian war)
3. Militarism: Naval race between Britain & Germany German U boats H.M.S. Dreadnought
Comparative Military Build Up: 1870-1914 • Russia 700,000 - 1,300,000 • France 380,000 - 846,000 • Germany 403,000 - 812,000 • Austria-Hungary 247,000 - 424,000 • Britain 302,000 - 381,000 • Japan 70,000 - 250,000 • U.S.A. 37,000 - 98,003 • Britain and Germany spent most per capita: • Germany $8.52 • Britain $8.53 • U.S.A. $0.32
Immediate Cause: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand The Balkans: powder keg of Europe
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary June 28, 1914 • Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip (Black Hand) • Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia • Germany declares war on Russia & France • Germany invades Belgium • Britain enters war
The Western Front http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/games/western_front/index.shtml www.bbc.co.uk/history/games/ western_front/index.shtml www.bbc.co.uk/history/games/ western_front/index.shtml
Mass Destruction: Stalemate on the Western Front Hiram Maxim
U.S. stance: Official Neutrality Pres. Wilson Sec. of State Bryan: strict neutrality Col. Edward House Walter Hines Page U.S. Ambassador UK
Secretary of State W.J.Bryan’s objections to loans to belligerents • First: Money is the worst of all contrabands because it commands everything else. • Second: If we approved of a loan to France we could not, of course, object to a loan to Great Britain, Germany, Russia, or to any other country, and if loans were made to these countries, our citizens would be divided into groups, each group loaning money to the country which it favors • Third: The powerful financial interests which would be connected with these loans would be tempted to use their influence through the newspapers to support the interests of the Government to which they had loaned because the value of the security would be directly affected by the result of the war.
British Blockade of Germany – Nov. 1914 • Attempt to starve Germany • British mine North Sea • Extension of definition of contraband • Britain invades German colonies in East Africa
Germany Retaliates • German fleet inferior to British • Germany uses submarine warfare • 1915 Zone of warfare around Britain –sink all merchant vessels • Attempt to starve Britain Unterseebooten – U boats
Germans torpedo passenger ships • Lusitania – British ship • 4,200 cases of Remington rifle cartridges • Fuses, empty shrapnel shells • Britain compromised non-belligerent status of ships • Britain starts to use convoys
U.S. economic interests: Result of Blockade • U.S. trade with Germany and Austria (1914: $169 Million; 1916: $1 Million) • U.S. trade with England and Allies (1914: $825 Million; 1916: $3,214 Million) • U.S. bank loans to England and Allies (March 1915 - April 1917: $2 Billion plus)
Zimmermann Telegram 1917 • “make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”
Selective Service 1917 • Less than 100,000 volunteer in first weeks – 1 million needed • Supervised decentralization • Local draft boards • 24 million men registered 23% pop • 4.8 million serve
War Industries Board 1915: The first military-industrial complex • The challenge of mobilizing in an era of rapid industrialization • Politics • Military • Economic interests • Industrial preparedness
Homefront: Food Administration • Assure the supply, distribution, and conservation of food during the war, • Facilitate transportation of food and prevent monopolies and hoarding, and • Maintain governmental power over foods by using voluntary agreements and a licensing system.
"We are glad ... to fight thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples, the German peoples included. . . The world must be made safe for democracy. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind.... --W. Wilson Message to Congress April 2, 1917.
"We are about to do the bidding of wealth's terrible mandate. By our act we will make millions of our countrymen suffer, and the consequences of it may well be that millions of our brethren must shed their life-blood, millions of broken-hearted women must weep, millions of children must suffer with cold, and millions of babes must die from hunger and all because we want to preserve the commercial right of American citizens to deliver munitions of war to belligerent nations." --George Norris (Progressive) Republican Senator from Nebraska. Speech in the U.S. Senate, April 4, 1917.
Paying for the war • Increased corporate taxes • Increased taxes on wealthy • (income tax in existence since 1913)
Summarize U.S. entry into war • Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare • Zimmerman telegram • Cultural ties to Britain • Loans to Allies • Propaganda
$10,000 fine, 20 years imprisonment for interfering with recruitment Could not own firearms, aircraft, wireless Could not publish an “attack” on U.S. govt. Could not leave without permission 14 years & older German nationality The Espionage Act & Alien enemies
Free Speech: Casualty of war - Charles Schenck • Distributed materials to draftees urging them to oppose the war (compared the draft to slavery) • Prosecuted under the 1917 Espionage Act • “Clear & Present Danger” • 6 months jail time Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
Another casualty of war: Eugene Debs • Anti-war speeches • Criticized the Espionage Act • Sentenced to 10 years jail • Ran for presidency 1920 from jail (915,000 votes) • Pardoned by Harding in ‘21
The Big Four Clemenceau Lloyd George Wilson Orlando
Wilson’s 14 points: Idealistic postwar world • No secret treaties • Freedom of the seas • Free trade • Self-determination for all countries • Return to pre-war borders • League of Nations
The realities of Europe • France wanted to punish Germany • War guilt clause for Germany • War reparations – Germany to pay 33 billion • Germany loses territory
Red Scare 1919 Hoover • Palmer Raids – campaign against left wing radicals • 10,000 arrested • Hundreds deported Palmer Goldman